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Brinton Memorial Meeting 



January Sixteenth, Nineteen Hundred, 


Xhe P^mevicm Philosophical Society, 


Daniel Garrison Brinton, M.D. 

philadelphia : 

American Philosophical Society. 

I qoo . 



'^ 67616 



1. Introductory by the Presiding Officer, representing the 

American Philosophical Society, 

Provost Charles C. Harrison. 

2. Presentation of an oil portrait of Dr. Brinton, the gift 

of friends, to the American Philosophical Society, 

Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker. 

3. Acceptance in behalf of the American Philosophical 

Society, Prof. J. W. Holland, M.D. 

4. Memorial Address, .... Prof. Albert H. Smyth. 

5. Presentation of a collected set of Dr. Brinton' s works, 

the gift of his family, to the American Philosophical 
Society, Rev. Jesse Y, Burk. 

6. Acceptance in behalf of the American Philosophical 

Society, ..... Mr. Joseph G. Rosengarten. 

7. Address, . . Prof. F. W. Putnam, of Cambridge, Mass. 

8. Presentation of a medal bearing Dr. Brinton' s portrait 

in relief, the gift of the Numismatic and Antiqua- 
rian Society, to the American Philosophical Society, 

Mr. Stewart Culin. 

9. Acceptance in behalf of the American Philosophical 

Society, Dr. J. Cheston Morris. 

10. Address on the Ethnological Work of Dr. Brinton, 

Dr. W. J. McGee, of Washington, D. C. 



BoEN May 13, 1837. 
Died July 31, 1899. 

At tlie stated meeting of the American Philosophical Soci- 
ety, held October 6, 1899, the death of Dr. Daniel G. Brinton 
was announced as having taken place on the 31st July, 1899, 
and Prof. Albert H. Smyth was requested to prepare a 
Memorial Address to be read at an early meeting. 

At the stated meeting held the 3d November, it was resolved 
to hold a Memorial Meeting in honor of Dr. Brinton, at 
which Prof. Smyth's address should be read. A Committee 
was appointed to arrange for such meeting, and was author- 
ized to extend invitations to all American learned societies 
of which Dr. Brinton was a member, and request such 
societies to appoint delegates, with which to confer and 
arrange the plan of the meeting. 

The delegates selected attended a general committee meet- 
ing at the Hall of the Society on the 9th December, 1899, 
at which it was decided to hold the Memorial Meeting on 
the evening of Tuesday, the 16th January, 1900, in the Hall 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and a programme 
for the meeting was arranged. 


The Memorial Meeting was called to order bj Provost 
Charles C. Harrison, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

The following Societies were represented at the meeting ; 

American Philosophical Society. 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
American Antiquarian Society. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
American Folk-Lore Society. 
American Museum of Natural History. 
American Oriental Society. 
Anthropological Society of Washington, D, C. 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 
Chester County Historical Society. 
Field Columbian Museum. 
Geographical Society of Philadelphia. 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 
Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. 
Loyal Legion. 

Modern Language Association of America. 
New Jersey Historical Society. 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia. 
Oriental Club of Philadelphia. 
Peabody Institute of Arts and Sciences. 
Peabody Museum of American Archseology and Ethnology. 
Smithsonian Institution. 
United States National Museum. 
University of Pennsylvania. 
' Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. 

The following letters of regret were read : 
Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Washington, January 15, 1900. 
My Bear Sir : — I greatly regret to inform you that I can- 
not be present at the Memorial exercises for Dr. Brinton 
to-morrow night. I have contracted a bad cold, my voice 
could not be heard by an audience, and my physician, who 
has just called, tells me that I cannot speak to-morrow even- 
ing. I beg of you to present my regrets to the Committee, 
and to express to them my sincere disappointment at not 
being able to use my voice in an expression of appreciation 
of the noble character of Dr. Brinton, his great and valu- 
able contributions to anthropology, and the loss which 
American science has sustained in his death. 

Yours with respect, 

J. W. Powell, 

Washington, D. C, January 16, 1900. 
It is with great regret that I am constrained at the last 
moment by unexpected circumstances to forego being present 
at the Memorial Meeting in honor of Dr. Brinton. I regret 
this enforced absence deeply. Dr. Brinton was very much 
in my life. He was a wise friend, and a true counselor in 
all my work. For nearly twenty years I have been in close 
touch with him, and in all that time have learned more and 
more to honor him as a man and to appreciate his attain- 
ments as a scholar. I have not telegraphed you, as it would 
only add another burden to your hands already so busy and 
full with this occasion. I write because I want you, and 
any other person you may deem proper, to know that I 
planned to be present, to add my small quota of public 
tribute to Dr. Brinton. I desired to represent the feeling 
expressed by the Woman's Anthropological Society, and of 
the women who are students of archajology and ethnology. 
I sincerely hope a lasting memorial may be created for him 
in the University. Very truly yours, 

Alice C. Fletcher. 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Washington, January 16, 1900. 

Gentlemen: — In tlie hope, albeit faint, that improved 
health would enable me to accept jour valued invitation by 
personal participation in the Memorial Meeting in honor of 
the late Dr. Daniel Garrison Brinton, I have withheld reply 
until this last moment. 

The event, as announced by you, is one of great interest 
and of paramount importance to the anthropological world, 
forming, as it does, a signal and, in itself, an almost suffi- 
cient tribute to the broad scholarship and the wide literary, no 
less than scientific, sympathies and attainments of its subject, 
our lamented leader. 

Then there is the count of his written works, scarce less 
in length than the Wallum Olum of the Leni Lenapi of his 
native State, which he was the first to adequately edit and 
introduce — that stands, a monument more lasting than the 
sculptured monoliths of Central America which he loved 
and labored so successfully to make speak again — leaving 
pathways and signs for all the rest of us to follow or beware, 
in study of .these the most subtle and significant of our 
archseologic problems. 

But more than all this is the position he so valiantly and 
at last victoriously held throughout the later years of his life 
in the field and school of which he was a familiar and mas- 
ter — that field which embraces all countries and peoples, that 
school which gains data from all human ages and records — 
that the mind of man is of single essence, responsive identi- 
cally everywhere through the entire range of possible human 
experiences and perceptions — by the apprehension of which 
still disputed fact only, may formulate laws whereby the data 
of anthropology can be correlated, so to make of this the 
youngest also the greatest of the sciences. 

There is one side of the life of an eminent maD which, 
more surely and swiftly than any other, shows the secret of 
his greatness, on an occasion like the present, for it is lost to 


sight unless speedily delineated at such time. It is the side 
which was seen by his friends and familiars in converse. I 
would be the happier to-day, yet in every way the poorer, 
were I unable to give one of the many such glimpses I was 
privileged to gain. 

Vast almost beyond belief is the amount of laborious 
single-handed work that Dr. Brinton accomplished. Yet to 
all casual observers he seemed essentially a cosmopolite, a 
man of leisure and at home in society in the living world. 
Men saw his urbane and easy habits always with this thought 
at first, then looked with amazement on the mountains of ore 
he had delved and refined from the deepest lore of science 
or garnered from its most widely sundered fields. 

Occasion once led me hurriedly into your Public Library 
across the way. Pardon me, but it was on one of those not 
infrequent lowering days of Philadelphia fog when the light 
of that lofty hall was unusually dim. Seated at the end of 
a table I beheld a distinguished-looking gentleman attired as 
became a man of care and taste when making a round of 
afternoon calls and receptions, the button of the Loyal Legion 
in the lapel of his coat. One hand kept place in an open 
book, in the other he held a watch, and near by lay a scrap 
of paper two inches square. " Here is a man who must 
have been roused to unusual interest, for evidently he is 
making calls, yet meantime studying, not merely glancing 
through, a work of science." I stepped nearer. It was the 
next last time I beheld Dr. Daniel Brinton, looking more 
worn than I had ever seen him, yet not less eagerly and 
absorbingly interested. Half of the little paper was covered 
with a summary of what he had read — the early third, at 
least, of the volume before him — and I quietly came away, 
possessed of one explanation of his prodigious achievements. 

When we see the monumental results of these left for our 
heritage, why should we regret ? Yet who of his rightful 
heirs therein can refrain ? 

Yours very truly, 

Frank Hamilton Gushing. 



Paris, January 15, 1900. 
Dear Sir: — My unavoidable absence is my excuse for 
troubling you with a letter to express the great loss inter- 
national science has made in Dr. Brinton and the value we 
set on his writings and the glorious labor of his life. 

His friendship has been a great pride in my life, and I 
would be obliged if you would express to the learned mem- 
bers of the Philosophical Society how much I share in the 
great loss they have made. 

Yours faithfully, 


Letters of regret were received also from 

Secretary of State, Washington. D. C. 

Secretary of the Treasury, "Washington, D. C. 

President Eliot, Harvard. 

President Low, Columbia University, New York. 

President Warfield, Lafayette College. 

President Gallaudet, Gallaudet College, Washington, D. C. 

President Angell, University of Michigan. 

President Packard, Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

President Campbell. Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 

General Ludlow, Governor of Havana, Cuba. 

Charles D. Walcott, Department of the Interior, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D. C. 

Edward C. Pickering, Harvard College Observatory. 

William W. Goodwin, Cambridge, Mass. 

Anson W. Hard, New York. 

William Wallace Tooker, Sag Harbor, N. Y. 

Mrs. J. M. Lander, Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. John G. Moore. 

William H. Dall, U. S. National Museum, Washington, 
D. C. 


Provost Harrison said : 

In the absence of the venerable President of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, I am called upon to preside at 
this significant meeting. 

As the call for this assemblage shows, the American 
Philosophical Society unites with the University of Pennsyl- 
vania and many other institutions of learning, both local and 
national, in offering to the memory of the late Dr. Daniel 
Garrison Brintou the tributes of honor, esteem and affection 
of those who, in his lifetime, were his fellow-workers in the 
literary and scientific fields in which he won so high a place. 
The number, the variety and the character of the institu- 
tions here represented indicate the flexibility of his mind and 
the force of his intellect, which made him a competent 
observer in so many directions. In none of them was his 
membership merely a complimentary matter ; each stands 
for some literary or scientific interest for which he cared, 
and in each of them his membership and presence were 
recognized as strong and effective. 

I need not here give any detail of his biography. That 
will be covered by others who are to take part in the pro- 
ceedings of the evening. It has already been sketched for 
the forty years of his active work by Prof. Chamberlain, of 
Clark University. It was but one year after his graduation 
that his first book, The Floridian Peninsula^ was published, 
and there is evidence that the influence of that work was 
immediately directive of the career of at least one fellow- 
student in anthropologic science. 

I knew Dr. Brinton personally many years prior to his 
coming to the University of Pennsylvania, where he held the 
chair of ' ' American Archaeology and Linguistics ' ' since 1886. 
Dr. Brinton' s devotion to what he himself called " the new 
science of anthropology" was most interesting. He had the 
utmost confidence, not only in the importance of the science 
itself as a science, but also in its practical value as an applied 
science in politics, education and legislation. He was not in 
any way a mere " collector" or "observer," in the familiar 


sense of these words ; he had a distinct and definite belief that 
very many of the mistakes which man has made in his progress 
and civihzation have been due to his lack of knowledge of 
himself, and that this knowledge can be obtained best by the 
collection and comparison of the records of the phenomena 
of his diverse mental activities. He considered science as 
purely inductive ; he took nothing for granted. How are 
the mental activities of the various races exhibited in their 
religions, their governments, their laws ? He felt that a 
better and scientific knowledge of these human tendencies 
would have lightened man's arduous struggle for advance 
and progress. Dr. Brinton recognized that while the law of 
progress, which is, perhaps, never dissociated from pain, 
was immutable, the pain should be minimized, and, in the 
past, would have been greatly reduced by a scientific knowl- 
edge by man of man himself. 

His work was a most proper subject for University investi- 
gation. He knew that by many it must be misunderstood, 
and for a time underestimated, but his purpose was one with 
that which should animate every University teacher; the 
unfolding of the history of human thought, the application 
ot the knowledge thus revealed to present and future pro- 
gress, the stimulation of that progress, freed from the pain 
of misdirected effort. His earnest hope was that the pursuit 
of the science which he had done so much to found might 
be continued at the University when the number of his own 
days was completed. When ill health overtook him, his 
mind turned immediately toward the safeguarding of his main 
object through the conservation of his unique library. He 
wrote to me, asking whether, in my judgment, it were better 
that he should give his entire collections, his books, and 
MSS., by will, to the University of Pennsylvania, or whether 
it would better be done during his lifetime, while he himself 
might hope to see the whole collection properly installed in 
the Library of the University. He adopted without hesita- 
tion the suggestion made to him that it would be better to 
act in the present than to take any risk of the future. And 


so tlie Trustees of tlie University of Pennsylvania have had 
the satisfaction, now a sad one, of receiving, in Dr. Brinton's 
own handwriting, the deed of gift of his entire library with 
its priceless manuscripts. The gift met the affectionate 
approval of Mrs. Brinton. 

It is a question, and one which the University should be 
able to solve, with the aid of the community, how Dr. Brin- 
ton's work is to be continued. His was a totally unusual 
position. He was able to devote himself to investigation, 
to gathering a priceless collection, and to the duties of his 
University chair, freed from the pecuniary hindrances which 
usually attach to such positions. His work was entirely an 
unpaid one, except by the reward that came to him with his 
knowledge of his own unselfish devotion to his chosen life- 

No one has yet appeared to take his place, and indeed no 
one may be found, unless, in grateful recognition of his dis- 
tinguished services, a chair of American Archaeology is 
founded at the University. All will unite, I am sure, in 
approving such a foundation as the only permanent memorial 
of the life-work of Dr. Daniel Garrison Brinton. 

" He was not only an expounder of archaeology, but of gen- 
eral anthropology — he was a man of letters ; a philologist ; 
a classical scholar ; an indefatigable worker ; a cultured gen- 
tleman. The founding of such a chair in the institution with 
which this eminent man was so long allied seems the only fit- 
ting tribute to his memory. His love of truth ; his search for 
truth ; his severe criticism upon everything which bore a 
shadow of untruth or suspicion, must ever be an inspiration 
to all earnest workers, whether in science, literature or art."* 
In such words as these has the proposal for a " Brinton 
Chair ' ' been received. 

If we were only mourning the loss of a great mind and 
of an intellectual force we could conduct this meeting in a 
cold and perfunctory way, reciting this and that of his 

* Mrs. Matilda Coxe Stevenson, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washing- 
ington, D. C. 


achievements, and estimating wliat their value was to the 
world of thought. But we lost more than that in Dr. Brin- 
ton's death. He was a man of heart as well as of brain, 
and his associates here know full well the weight of that 
personality in which the affections have in their own way as 
great a weight as knowledge. We want to remember not 
only how he thought and spoke, but how he appeared to us 
when full of that earnest, vigorous life which took such hold 
upon his friends. It is a wise thought to have before this 
audience the artist's delineation of his features, as it listens 
to the story of his life, and I therefore, as a preliminary to 
all else, introduce to you Judge Pennypacker, who will pre- 
sent to the parent Society a portrait of him whom we are here 
to honor. 

HojST. Samuel W. Pexnyp acker, in presenting an oil por- 
trait of Dr. Brinton, the gift of friends, to the American 
Philosophical Society, said : 

3fr. President^ Ladies and Gentlemen: — Men in different 
localities and of different races vary as much in their intel- 
lectual stature as in their physique, and they reach their 
highest development in divers ways. Greece gave expres- 
sion to her thought by the graving of marble. The Ptomans 
won fame and power behind the shields of their soldiers. 
The Dutch, after mastering the seas, sought commerce at the 
ends of the earth, and Cape Horn, and Cape of Good Hope, 
and Cape Henlopen and Cape May still attest their activity. 

The people of Pennsylvania, while they have never given 
very much attention to the jingle of rhyme, to story and to 
romance, the amusements of a race in its infancy, have ever 
been noted for their devotion to medicine, which alleviates 
our sufferings, and to science, which enlarges our understand- 
ing. The names of Eittenhouse and Godfrey, of Push and 
Agnew and Gross, of Leidy and Cope and Brinton have ex- 
tended to every centre of civilization. 

Some friends, not unmindful of the importance of the 
contributions to science made by Dr. Brinton, and anxious 


that his lineaments may be preserved for future generations, 
have had this portrait painted by a distinguished artist, Mr. 
Thomas Eakins. The situation and surroundings are all pro- 
pitious and fitting. In this Hall are collected the records of 
that sect which founded the province and to which the ances- 
tors of Dr. Brinton belonged. The picture itself is a repre- 
sentation of that art in which Sir Benjamin "West, bom in 
the neighborhood where the family of Brinton lived, reached 
the highest distinction of his time. It is presented to the 
oldest scientific Society in America, to which, one hundred 
and fifty years ago, the scientists of New England and of 
Old England, and of France as well, were proud to belong. 

It is my pleasure, Mr. President, on behalf of these gener- 
ous donors, to present to you, and through you to the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, this excellent portrait. 

Prof. J. W. Holland, M.D., in accepting the portrait 
of Dr. Brinton on behalf of the Society, said : 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: — On behalf of the 
American Philosophical Society, I have the honor to accept 
this most appropriate gift and express to the donors our grate- 
ful acknowledgments. In paying my tribute of admiration 
for the skill of the artist, I am reminded that he studied 
human anatomy at the same school, though not at the same 
time with Dr. Brinton. In that college of medicine young 
Brinton, at a plastic age, felt the formative influence of 
teachers who were members of the American Philosophical 
Society. From them he got his first bent toward surgery 
and acquired the scientific habit of thought which persisted 
even in his later non-medical studies. Perhaps Pancoast, or 
Gross, or Bache, or Meigs may have struck from his soul the 
fire of patriotism which made him an army surgeon during 
the Civil War. A medical editor for twenty years, he handed 
on the torch of enlightenment and moulded professional 
opinion to his own liberal form. When he turned aside 
from medical studies to cultivate the new ground of Ameri- 
can archaeology and linguistics, it was to the Philosophical 


Society that he brought the rich harvest of his labors. In 
its transactions are garnered the ripe fruits of his research. 

In this field, where the laborers are few, who will replace 
him ? Who, now living, can drive such deep, straight fur- 
rows ? What arm can cut such wide swaths ? What shoul- 
ders can bear his load of the golden sheaves ? 

While there can be no alleviation to our regret that his 
voice is heard no more in our counsels, and that a master in his 
special studies has been stricken at the height of his useful- 
ness, it is no small gain to have this constant reminder to 
serve as an inspiration to us who survive him. 

Sir, your gift of the portrait of the patriot surgeon, the 
man of light and leading, the learned archseologist, will be 
placed in the goodly fellowship of our departed worthies, a 
fit companion to the portraits of Jefierson and Franklin. 

Prof. Albert H. Smyth then delivered the following 

We have met to do honor to an illustrious scholar, in whose 
death we mourn the loss of one who has redeemed American 
scholarship from any taint of narrowness or charge of incom- 

It is easy for us to lift our hearts in praise of him, but it 
is difficult to deal justly and adequately, in the brief time 
allowed to me, with one who touched life on so many sides, 
and who won high distinction and conferred signal benefits 
in so many and diverse fields. He would have been the first 
to reprove extravagant eulogy, for in his modesty he took 
little credit to himself for achievements that were of world- 
wide importance and acceptance. He knew the immensity 
of the untraveled world before him, and, single-hearted in 
the pursuit of iruili^ he counted not himself to have attained, 
but to be still patiently working toward that far-ofi" goal of 
all intellectual endeavor. 

Everywhere, at seats of learning, in erudite societies, and 
among distinguished scholars — the name of Daniel Garrison 
Brinton is known and honored. American scholarship in 


him commanded respect and won the recognition of the 
world. If at home his great talents were not always appre- 
ciated to the height, and he was not invested with that 
authority and preeminence which justly belonged to him, it 
is but another distinguished illustration of the truth of Cardinal 
Newman's high saying, that " the saints live in sackcloth, 
and are buried in silk and purple.' ' 

In his own particular field of American ethnology he was 
without a peer, but his intellectual interests were unusually 
broad, and in widely different spheres of science and litera- 
ture he commanded respectful attention. Those who knew 
him were impressed by his encyclopi-edic knowledge and they 
admired the symmetry of his culture. He wrought, not from 
curiosity or vain ambition, but with a controlling sincerity, 
at many widely different studies. He was steeped in the 
classics, a dihgent reader of many modern literatures, a care- 
ful student of the history of art, well trained in the physi- 
cal sciences, and a bold speculator in philosophy. The most 
notable fact about him was his many-sidedness. He had the 
liveliest interest in all scientific progress. He was in con- 
tinual fence with men in every sphere of activity, for he 
never met a man from whom he did not seek to learn some- 
thincr. And his vision was clearer and keener in particulars 
because of his many-sidedness. 

It was Emerson who said that " a man is like a bit of 
Labrador spar which has no lustre as you turn it in your hand 
until you come to a particular angle, then it shows deep and 
beautiful colors," but in Dr. Brinton's life each facet and 
angle had its lustre. 

Darwin regretted that his unremitted attention to science 
had destroyed his power of appreciating poetry and the 
drama. No such atrophy was possible in the varied intel- 
lectual experience of Dr. Brinton, He " dwelt enlarged in 
alien modes of thought." He took his recreation often in 
the less-known fields of literature, and one of his chief joys 
was the discovery of a new author. He introduced a small 
coterie with keen enthusiasm to the poems ol Clarence Man- 


gan. And he was himself the author of an historical drama 
in blank verse. 

When he died — July 31, 1899 — his life-work was practi- 
callj done. He left no great work unfinished, though to the 
last he was fertile with new ideas and busy with new projects. 

He lived the life of a retired scholar, but it was not a life 
of apathetic monotony. In the truest sense he lived in the 
full stream of the world. He kept pace with the march of 
mind. The great questions of religion, politics, society and 
science were of vital importance to him. " Humani yiihil a 
me alienum puto,^^ he might well have said. To these high 
things he was neither indifferent nor silent. This patient 
student of difficult American lore did much to connect learn- 
ing with the living forces of society. In the press and on the 
lecture platform he served his generation with the same 
habitual reference to truth that characterized his labors in 
that obscure mine from which he brought the rich materials 
of his great works upon the ethnology of the American 

Daniel Garrison Brinton was a native of Pennsylvania, bom 
at Thornbury, in Chester county, May 13, 1837. He was 
descended from English Quakers, who came to the colony of 
Pennsylvania in 1684. "William Brinton, the first to come to 
America, was from Nether Gournall, on the borders of Salop, 
in which county the first of the name known to history, 
Eobertus de Brinton, was given the manor of Longford by 
Henry I, which was held by his descendants for several cen- 

Upon the hereditary farm in Chester county was a " vil- 
lage site " of some ancient encampment of the Delaware 
Indians. Brinton' s boyish curiosity was excited by the curi- 
ous fragments of Indian pottery which the ploughshare turned 
out ; and with tLe collections which he made of flint arrowheads 
and stone axes probably began his interest in the studies 
which he was destined so mightily to advance. 

The books which chiefly influenced him while yet a child, 
and which with a child's eagerness he read and read again, 


were McClintock's Antiquarian Researches and Ilumholdt's 
Cosmos. Thej formed his taste and shaped his ambition. 

He was prepared for college by Rev. William E. Moore, of 
"West Chester, and he entered Yale College, September 13, 
1854. Those who knew him then remember his fondness for 
recondite learning, and his keen delight in old forgotten 
folios. He won the second prize for English composition the 
first term, and the first prize in the second term. In 1857 he 
became editor of the Yale literary magazine. From 1858, 
wben he took his B.A. at Yale, until 1860 he studied in the 
Jefferson Medical College. For a year he traveled in Europe, 
studjidng in Paris and Heidelberg, and returned to practise 
medicine at West Chester. 

In August, 1862, he entered the army as acting assistant 
surgeon, and, after passing a second examination in Novem- 
ber, 1862, received a commission as surgeon U. S. Volun- 
teers, February 9, 1863. He saw much active service, for he 
was assigned to duty with the lltli Corps of the Army ot 
the Potomac, as Surgeon-in- Chief of Division, and he was at 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and other important battles of 
tbe war. After Chickamauga he was sent with the corps to 
reinforce Rosecrans in East Tennessee, and took part in the 
battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. In 
November, 1863, he was made Medical Director of the 11th 
Corps, and served until April, 1864, when, at his own request, 
he was transferred to the U. S. Army General Hospital, at 
Quincy, 111., and assigned as Surgeon in charge. Here he 
remained until August 5, 1865, when he was brevetted Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of Volunteers " for meritorious services," 
and honorably discharged from the army. 

In the autumn of 1863 he suffered a sunstroke which com- 
pelled his retirement from field duty, and from which he 
believed he never entirely recovered. He concealed his 
infirmity with Spartan care, but there was always present 
with, him the apprehension of apoplexy, and that craved 
cautious living. 

He married, September 28, 1865, Miss Sarah Tillson, of 


Quincy, 111., and after his marriage be resided in West Ches- 
ter, and practised medicine until he removed to Philadelphia, 
and became assistant editor of a weekly publication called 
The Medical and Surgical Reporter. In 1874 he became 
editor, and from this time retired from the practice of medi- 
cine and devoted himself to editorial work. After twenty 
years' connection with the Medical and Surgical Reporter he 
retired in 1887, in order to dedicate himself more completely 
to the studies which were the passion of his life. 

To cite the titles of all his publications would savor of 
pedantry ; and his literary life was so varied and so busy 
that a mere catalogue of his industry would more than fill 
the time permitted to this brief address. 

In the forty years of earnest toil between 1859, when he 
published his first work, The Floridian Peninsula^ and 
1899, when he left unfinished his hand-book of " racial psy- 
chology," Dr. Brinton "wrote twenty-three books and a vast 
miscellany of pamphlets, monographs and brochures. He 
contributed forty-eight articles to the Transactions and 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, and 
eightv-two papers, of which I have a record, to the Proceed- 
ings of other learned bodies and to scientific periodicals. 
He printed in the American Historical Magazine studies of 
" The Mound Builders of the Mississippi Valley" and of 
^' The Shawnees and Their Migrations." In the American 
Journal of Arts and Sciences he discussed " The Ancient 
Phonetic Alphabet of Yucatan " ; in the American Anti- 
quarian^ " The Chief God of the Algonquins in His Charac- 
ter as a Cheat and a Liar." Archseological articles were 
furnished by him to the Encyclopaedia Britannica and the 
Iconographic Mncyclopsedia, and many of the articles from 
his unwearied pen appeared in foreign publications, in the 
Annales del Museo Nacional, the Revue de Linguistique, and 
the Compte Rendus of the ' ' Congr^s International des Ameri- 

It is a wide range of studies that is presented by these 
multifarious papers. He travels from articles on the 


" Chontallis and Popolucas " to the "Folk-Lore of the 
Bones.'' ^ We turn over his pamphlets and find in quick 
succession " Notes on the Classical Murmex," " On the 
Measurement of Thought as Function," on " Left-handed- 
ness in North American Aboriginal Art," and " The Etrusco- 
Libyan Elements in the Song of the Arval Brethren." 

In 1882 he began editing and publishing the " Library of 
American Aboriginal Literature." It is with no inconsider- 
able solicitude that I venture to speak of that monument of 
learning, which is one of the most notable scientific enter- 
prises of this country. 

It is a work of such a kind and such a magnitude that it 
placed its editor among the first anthropologists of the world, 
and in pure science ranked him with "Whitney and Leidy 
among the departed, and Furness and Lea among the living. 
Of this ' ' Library ' ' eight volumes were issued, the first in 
1882, the eighth in 1890, and they were designed " to put 
within reach of scholars authentic materials for the study of 
the languages and culture of the native races of America." 

The volumes appeared in the following order : 

No. I. The Chronicles of the Mayas, containing five brief 
chronicles in the Maya language written shortly after the 
conquest, and carrying the history of that people back many 

No. II. The Iroquois Book of Rites. Edited by Horatio 

No. III. The Comedy-Ballet of Oueguence. A curious and 
unique specimen of the native comic dances, with dialogues, 
called bailes, formerly common in Central America. 

No. IV. A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians. Edited 
by A. S. Gatschet. 

No. Y. The Lendpe and Their Legends. Contains the 
original text and translation of the 184 symbols of the 
" Walum Olum," or " Ked Score" of the Delaware 

No. VI. The Annals of the Cakchiquels, one of the most 
important historical documents of the pre-Columbian period. 


No. VII. Ancient N'ahuatl Poetry, translation and com- 
mentary upon twenty-seven songs in the original Nahuatl. 

No. VIII. Big Veda Americanus. Twenty sacred chants 
of the ancient Mexicans. 

I must very briefly characterize Dr. Brinton's other im- 
portant ethnological and linguistic studies. 

The American Race, a volume of four hundred pages, was 
the first attempt at a systematic classification of all the tribes 
of America, North, Central and South, on the basis of lan- 
guage. It defines seventy-nine linguistic stocks in North 
America and sixty-one in South America. The number of 
tribes named and referred to these stocks is nearly 1600. 
Several of these stocks Dr. Brinton defined for the first time. 

In all these difficult and often entirely new explorations 
into the untraveled region of American languages, he pro- 
ceeded, not as a mere dialectician, but with a constant refer- 
ence of special facts to general linguistic theory. He 
belonged to the non-metaphysical school of philology. 
That he did not speculate upon language was a self-imposed 
restraint, for he had a large knowledge of the great work of 
Whitney, and was well equipped to deal theoretically with 
dialects and stocks. However minute the object of Ms 
study, it was highly characteristic of him that he never left 
it without showing its relation to comprehensive general 
truths. For in addition to his great memory he had an elec- 
trical power of combination, which is found only in the 
greatest scholars, whereby what else were dust from dead 
men's bones, he brought into the unity of breathing life. 

With regard to American languages he was a disciple of 
Wilhelm von Humboldt and Prof. Steinthal, and he argued 
that the phenomenon of incorporation in some of its forms 
is markedly present in the vast majority, if not in all Ameri- 
can tongues. 

His minutely accurate knowledge of linguistic forms 
enabled him to spot a forgery with unfailing promptitude. 

A notable instance was the curious hoax of the Taensa lan- 
guage. The Taensas were a branch of the Natchez, speaking 


the same tongue. A volume of supposed Taensa writing was 
printed in the BihKotheque Linyuistique Americaine, but the 
whole document was conclusively shown by Brinton to be 
the forgery of some clever young French seminarists. 

In like manner he demonstrated the fraudulent inven- 
tion of The Life and Adventures of William Filley, Who was 
Stolen by the Indians. 

His judgment and knowledge were so well understood and 
respected that he was universally recognized as the final 
arbiter in all doubtful questions relating to the American 
race. Upon the authenticity of alleged Indian picture 
writings or the antiquity of prehistoric bones found in 
Florida or Alaska he was expected to pass judgment, and his 
verdict was final. 

He contested with unanswerable force the prevalent 
hypothesis of the Asiatic origin of Mexican and Central 
American civilization. He rebuked with fine irony the pre- 
tensions of those flighty scholars who are now and then off 
like a rocket for an airy whirl in the clouds. He demanded 
that the ethnologist should understand and respect the prin- 
ciples of phonetic variation, of systematic derivation, of the 
historic comparison of languages, of grammatic evolution 
and morphologic development that, in a word, he should 
be linked to the shore with towing ropes of science. He 
concluded his pamphlet On Various Supposed Relations 
Between the American and Asian Races with these words : 

" Do any of the numerous languages and innumerable 
dialects of America present any affinities, judged by the 
standards of the best modern linguistic schools, which would 
bring them into genetic relationship with any of the dialects 
of Asia ? I believe I have a right to speak with some 
authority on this subject, for the American languages have 
constituted the principal study of my life ; and I say unhesi- 
tatingly that no such affinities have been shown ; and 1 say 
this with an abundant acquaintance with such works as The 
Prehistoric Comparative Philology of Dr. Hyde Clark ; with 
the writings of the Rev. John Campbell, who has discovered 


the Hittite language in America before we have learned 
where it was in Asia ; with the laborious Comparative 
Philology of Mr. E. P. Greg ; with the Amerikanisch- 
Asiatische Etymologien of the ardent Americanist Mr. Julius 
Platzmann ; with the proof that the Nahautl is an Aryan 
language furnished by the late Director of the National Mu- 
seum of Mexico, Senor Gumesindo Mendoza ; with Varnha- 
gen's array of evidence that the Tupi and Carib are Turanian 
dialects imported into Brazil from Liberia ; with the Abb^ 
Petitot's conviction that the Tinneh of Canada is a Semitic 
dialect ; with Naxera's identification of the Otomi with the 
Chinese ; and with many more such scientific vagaries 
which, in the auctioneer's phrase, are too tedious to mention. 

' ' When I see volumes of this character, many involving 
prolonged and arduous research on the part of the authors 
and a corresponding sacrifice of pleasant things iu other 
directions, I am affected by a sense of deep commiseration 
for able men who expend their efforts in pursuit of such 
will-o'-the-wisps of science, panting along roads which lead 
nowhere, inattentive to the guide-posts which alone can 
direct them to solid ground." 

Brinton's studies in the origin and character of the native 
religions of the Western Continent, which began with The 
Myths of the New World: A Treatise on the Symbolism and 
Mythology of the Red Race of America^ and were continued 
in American Hero Myths^ found their natural fruition in the 
important work entitled The Religious Sentiment : A Contri- 
bution to the Science and Philosophy of Religions. The science 
of religion continued to occupy his thought until in 1897 he 
published his lectures upon Religions of Primitive Peoples, 
in some respects his chief contribution to the literature of 
science. He eloquently interpreted the doctrine of mental 
unity, arguing for the spontaneous genesis of religion, con- 
tending that parallel opinions prevailing among widely sepa- 
rated people did not prove a derivation of ideas. The main 
thesis of the volume, that the human mind is everywhere in 
direct contact with the divine, and that therefrom results a 


spontaneous origination of religious belief, seems to be 
almost a reminiscence of the Quakerism in which Dr. Brin- 
ton was bred. 

Brinton was not a sequestered scholar. He delighted to 
talk with men. He never praised cloistered virtues or 
sympathized with the ascetic life. In private friendship he 
was loyal and delightful ; in social companionship, easy, 
polished, good-humored, the ideal ot complete gentlemanhood. 
He was an image of integrity, simplicity and taste, always 
eager to acknowledge the merits of his fellow-students, 
always ready to help others at hard parts of the way. His 
friends loved him, and he never disappointed or repelled. 
He was tolerant, gentle, self-denving, of most democratic 
temper — equally at home in the company of scholars, peers 
or laborers. 

His love of social intercourse and his sense of obligation to 
the great guild of intellect and scholarship brought him into 
membership in many societies. Twenty-six American socie- 
ties are represented at this Memorial meeting, and he was a 
member of at least as many more in France, Italy, Germany, 
Russia and Spain. He belonged, for example, to the An- 
thropological Societies of Berlin and Vienna, the Ethno- 
graphical Societies of Paris and Florence, the Royal Society 
of Antiquaries at Copenhagen, and the Royal Academy of 
History of Madrid. He was medaled by the Societe Ameri- 
caine de France, diplomatized by Yale and the University of 
Pennsylvania, a Founder of the Reale Societa Didascalica 
Ttaliana and an 0£icier de V Instruction Pahlique. He was 
Professor of Ethnology and Archaeology in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, Professor of American 
Linguistics and Archseology in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, a President of the Numismatic and Antiquarian 
Society of Philadelphia, President of the American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science, President of the 
American Folk-Lore Society, and Vice-President of the 
International Congress of Americanistes, at Paris. 

He became a member of the American Philosophical Soci- 


ety, April 16, 1869. He was elected Curator, January 5, 1877, 
and continued in office until the close of 1897. He was a 
Secretary of the Society from January 2, 1880, until the 
close of 1895. And he was Chairman of the Publication 
Committee at the time of his death. 

He was appointed to represent this Society at the follow- 
ing Congresses : 

Congr^s des Americanistes, at Copenhagen, September, 

Congrtis des Americanistes, at Stockholm, September, 

Congres des Americanistes, at Havre, 1897. 

And he also represented the Society at the memorial meet- 
ing in honor of Dr. G. Brown Goode, 1897. 

In conversation and in correspondence he gave freely and 
generously of his astonishing stores of wide and accurate 
knowledge. He wrote fluently and talked eloquently, and 
upon the lecture platform was extremely happy in the art of 
clear and cogent statement. He worked patiently to improve 
his style in both written and spoken discourse. Through his 
successive volumes the attentive reader may observe the 
constant gain of power and freedom of expression until he 
is delighted by the grace and mobility of diction in The 
Pursuit of Happiness and Religions of Primitive Peoples. 
"With like patience and persistence he overcame natural 
disabilities of speech and gave tone and character to a voice 
that was unpleasantly marked by the wiry twang of Southern 

I have already referred to his interest in art and literature. 
Few men were more familiar than he with the great galleries 
of Europe, and he had an unusual acquaintance with the 
poetry of many languages. He was catholic in his tastes. 
He frequently spoke and read before the Browning Society ; 
he was an ardent admirer of Walt Whitman ; and he said 
that he had often gone to Tennyson for light upon scientific 

His admiration of Walt Whitman and his fondness for 

the realism of Ibsen and Zola proceeded doubtless from his 
scientific training. Music was the only art in which he pro- 
fessed no enjoyment. He was fond of quoting Jules Janin : 
" Music is an expensive noise." 

In 1897 he published Maria Candelaria: An Historic 
Drama from American Aboriginal Life. The scene of the 
drama is the extreme southeastern State of the Republic of 
Mexico, and the story is taken from the life of Cancuc, or 
Maria Candelaria, an Indian girl, a priestess of the Nagua- 
lists and the heroine of the revolt of the Tzeutals in 1712, 
whom Dr. Brinton calls " the American Joan of Arc." 
It was written in blank verse which is smooth and agreeable 
albeit slightly mechanical. 

Brinton knew that the highest art is the art to live. In 
his Pursuit of Happiness he says, " What nobler compli- 
ment could be paid a man than this, which Yittoria Colonna 
wrote to Michael Angelo, ' You have disposed the labor of 
your whole life as one single great work of art ' ? " His sym- 
pathies were as many-sided as his knowledge. Social and 
religious questions which affected individuality and the con- 
duct of life were the subjects of deepest interest and con- 
cern to him. " The aim of Science," he said, " is the Real ; 
of Art, the Ideal ; of Action, Happiness. It is for religion 
to unite this trinity into a unity in each individual life." 
The sentiment of religion was strongly innate in his charac- 
ter. He was naturally reverent, and he always protested 
against the heedless surrender of legitimate pieties which 
elevate and consecrate human life. One frequently comes, 
in his philosophical reflections, upon such a sentence as 
" We are justified in retaining a reasonable and holy hope 
that the victory of the grave is not eternal." But his 
faith never fixed itself to form. He had no sympathy with 
dogma. Upon such questions he sometimes spoke before 
the Ethical Culture Society, and he was always fearless 
though modest in the presentation of his views, however 
much they might be at variance with the thought of the 
time. He stood at all times for individualism, saying, " The 


greatest teachers have not desired disciples, but friends. 
They have never exerted authority, and when they could not 
persuade or convince they have sought no proselytes. To 
them the independence of the individual mind has been of 
more importance than the dissemination of any article of faith 
or element of instruction. Spinoza, Herder, Wilhelm von 
Humboldt, our own Emerson, have all in spirit joined with 
Goethe in singing that the secret of the highest happiness of 
man rests in the preservation of his own free personality : — 

' Hochstes Gliick der Erdenkinder, 
Sei nur die Personlichkeit.' 

Dreamers are constantly devising schemes by which the 
idle and incompetent may live off the proceeds of the dili- 
gent ; labor unions deprive their members of the liberty of 
speech and the liberty of work ; socialism would reduce all 
to a common level ; syndicates and trusts break down indi- 
vidual enterprise ; sectarian colleges limit their calls to pro- 
fessors who will echo their tenets ; and thus in all directions 
the free growth of the individual is hemmed in by the hedges 
of prejudice, tradition, creed and false theory." 

He liked to take life at right angles. I mean that he was 
wont to question his friends, or, indeed, chance acquaint- 
ances, as to their ideal of life, their purpose in life, and their 
notion of happiness. It was out of such colloquies that his 
book upon the Pursuit of Happiness grew, in which the 
wisdom of a philosophic and observant life is framed into a 
gospel. In Europe and America he sought the society of 
anarchists, and mingled sometimes with the malcontents of 
the world that he might appreciate their grievance and weigh 
their propositions of reform or change. 

In politics Brinton was an ardent patriot. He believed in 
the immense future of America. His frequent residence 
abroad never estranged him from his country. His cheerful 
optimism suffered no eclipse. After America I think his 
interests were with France. He understood the French 
people, and he enjoyed French life. His chief friends among 


foreign Americanistes were in Paris — the Comte de Charency, 
the Marquis de JSTadailiac, and Prince Roland Bonaparte. 
He was a social creature, a man of cities and of streets, and 
it was with an unfailing and youthful joy that he returned to 
Paris to wander 

" Thro' wind and rain and wateh the Seine, 
And feel the Boulevard break again 
To warmth and light and bliss." 

Science has suffered a serious loss in the death of Dr. 
Brinton, but to his friends the loss is irreparable. He is 
buried in our hearts. But a little while ago and he moved 
among us with a firm step and an alert bearing. He seemed 
so cheerful, so happy, so vigorous and so young. Suddenly 
that alertness was shaken, and the vital forces swiftly failed. 
He was spared the " cold gradations of decay." He had 
lived a blameless, devoted and beneficent life. His work is 
permanent and valuable. He could say with Landor : "I 
have warmed both hands before the fire of life. It sinks, 
and I am ready to depart." 

Rev. Jesse Y. Burk said : 

Mr. Chairman. Ladies and Gentlemen: — To me has been 
assigned the grateful duty of presenting, in the name of Dr. 
Brinton' s family, a complete set of his printed works to the 
American Philosophical Society. I need not dwell on the 
appropriateness of the gift. You witnessed the gift to the 
same Society of that admirable portrait, so soon to find its 
place among those of the great men whose genius and whose 
labors have made its name illustrious. For generations to 
come men shall see what manner of man Dr. Brinton was in 
his outward appearance, and glean from the painter's art 
some inkling of what was a cherished reality to us. But no 
Lavater can read in the pictured face what were the workings 
of the brain behind it ; and to justify these gracious memo- 
rials, and the places of honor we shall give them, men who 
come after us must be told what this man thought and felt. 
We want that autobiography of his own heart and brain 


wMch a man unconsciously makes when he puts into written 
words the result of study in his chosen themes. 

Here, then, in the works of Dr. Brinton is the comple- 
ment of the portrait of Dr. Brinton, and together they form 
as nearly a complete memorial as we may hope to have. 
You have heard from others — those of you who do not know 
— the scope and quality of these books, the wide range of 
ethnological research, the wonderful linguistic ability revealed 
in them, their rigid scientific method, their manifest sincerity, 
or, when occasion served, the delicate and poetic fancy of the 
poet and the dramatist ; but all alike models of purity in 
style. The most of them are " books triumphant." There 
will, no doubt, be wonderful discoveries in our American 
archaeology and some improvements in our arch^ological 
methods ; but no future archaeologist can afford to overlook 
the works of Brinton, or have occasion to do over again what 
in some of them Brinton has done once for all. 

They are worthily bestowed upon that venerable Society 
in whose halls Dr. Brinton found such congenial friendship, 
to which, as to a mother, he swiftly brought the spoils of 
every research afield, to whose honor and to whose welfare 
he gave so much of thought and time. For these institu- 
tions are unchanging and enduring. They keep with zealous 
care what is committed to their trust. The marble will 
have grown illegible outdoors, while this portrait and these 
volumes are still eloquent of him whose memory we cherish. 

There is just one other thought that I desire to express. 
They whom I represent to-night pretend to no skill in archee- 
ology and are confessedly ignorant of aboriginal dialects. 
And yet, when they make this offering, they are giving of 
their very own, for they had their own share in the making 
of it — they gave something that these books might be writ- 
ten. You look upon a masterpiece of Bernard Palissy, and 
you recognize in his handiwork not only tbe cunning crafts- 
man, but the high-souled artist, the intense lover of Nature, 
the incorrupt and strenuous man. But can you recall the 
story of those ceramic triumphs without a memory of 


Madame Palissy, and the part that slie had in their making 
— the long, patient waiting, the unfaltering trust, the surren- 
der of the very conveniences of life, the supreme sacrifice 
of the wedding ring ? It is so in some measure with every 
artist, every poet, every brain worker who is blessed with a 
family. The hours of his devotion at his chosen shrine are 
very long, and the uncomprehended mysteries of his craft 
so utterly absorb him, there are so often absences from home, 
and hours at home when the household move softly and 
keep aloof from the studio because the master is at work. 

" Grave Alice, and laughing Allegra, and Edith with golden hair," 

rush into Longfellow's study to take him by assault ; but it 
is down the broad stairway — for the nursery is on another 
floor — and it is in the twilight hour, when book and pen must 
be laid aside. And when the artist is of the sunny and 
genial spirit that this our friend was, when every hour of 
his presence and his companionship is something to be prized 
— then, I tell you that folded into the leaves of these vol- 
umes, which represent a lifetime of arduous study, are surren- 
ders and sacrifices that give to the family of Dr. Brinton a 
share in their production, and it is of their very own that 
they now offer to you this memorial of him whom they 
love. Accept them, I pray you, as something more than 
mere additions to your Library. Let it be of record how 
and whence they came, and count them as a loving tribute 
alike to the venerable Society and to the memory of Dr. 

Mr. Joseph G. Eosengaeten, in accepting, on behalf of the 
American Philosophical Society, a collection of the works 
of the late Dr. Brinton, at the Memorial Meeting, said : 

There can be no more appropriate and enduring memorial 
of Dr. Brinton than this collection of his writings. In them 
he lives again, and his name will be fittingly perpetuated, 
on the shelves of the Library of the Philosophical Society, 
rich in the productions of its members, in the broad fields 


of literature and science. Nothing better testifies tlie wide 
scope of his studies, the broad reach of his learning, and the 
remarkable skill and ability with which he handled the vast 
extent of his work. In archaeology, in linguistics, in pre- 
historic research, in science and literature he has won a dis- 
tinguished place, and this collection of his works serves to 
show the milestones of his steady progress as a student, as 
an author and as a teacher. Apart from his purely profes- 
sional medical work (and his contributions in that direction 
were both numerous and valuable) he has left in his books 
an enduring memorial of his many-sided literary activity. 

It was not enough for Dr. Brinton to master the early lan- 
guages of this continent, but he reduced his knowledge to 
accurate statements of detail of value to future students, 
and his contributions on this subject alone will always be 
of value. His Lowell Institute Lectures, too, remain a 
permanent acquisition to a better knowledge of comparative 
religions, and through them shine his remarkable acquisition 
of knowledge and his ability to set it forth in clear, terse, 
plain statements of fact and well-reasoned arguments and 
well-established conclusions. Those of us who remember the 
charm of his addresses and lectures, his enthusiasm in setting 
forth in logical order his reasons and his deductions, will 
read with heightened interest the printed pages of the books 
that gave his learning freely to the world, and made it the 
richer for his contributions to its stock of useful knowledge. 
Nowhere better than in the Library of the American Philo- 
sophical Society can his works be placed, for there they will 
serve to perpetuate his name, and to inspire younger genera- 
tions of students and scholars with his own zeal for learning 
and teaching. 

On behalf of the Philosophical Society I accept these 
works by Dr. Brinton, as a memorial of his contributions to 
that body, and to the world of science, of research and of 
learning. His kindly and genial features will, I hope, be 
perpetuated by a portrait on its walls, thus enrolling him in 
its gallery of worthies already there, and his writings now 


presented will be preserved in its Library, as the contribu- 
tions made by him from time to time on the great variety of 
subjects mastered by him. Such a collection may well be 
the best and most lasting memorial of such a scholar, and 
while his own largo library goes to the University of Penn- 
sylvania, there to encourage others to pursue the subjects to 
which he gave so many and such fruitful years of study, his 
books will be the best proof that his service to science has 
an enduring value for all time. 

I thank you, and through you the family of Dr. Brinton, 
for this gift, and I am assured that the members of the 
Philosophical Society will receive and preserve these volumes 
with a grateful sense of the great work done by Dr. Brinton. 

Prof, F. W. Putnam, of the Department of American 
Archaeology and Ethnology in Harvard University, also 
representing the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, said : 

Gentlemen and Friends of the man lohose memory we are 
here to honor : — It is to be regretted that Major Powell is not 
here to give the address which he would have given in his 
eloqiient words. My personal tribute to our friend was 
offered on a former occasion and my remarks to-night will 
be brief. 

It has been susrsrested that there should be some lasting 
memorial to the memory of Dr. Brinton. We have before 
us, in these many volumes, his literary works which will live 
forever ; we have here his portrait, in which we recognize 
one whom we knew and whom we honored, which will be 
hung upon these walls in company with other honored sons of 
Pennsylvania. But there is something more that I think 
should be done to perpetuate his memory in the University 
with which he was connected, and in this city. The Pro- 
vost of the University has suggested the foundation of a 
Professorship of Archteology, or rather, allow me to say. 
of Anthropology, covering the whole subject in the broad 
way in which Dr. Brinton himself covered it in his lectures 


to his students. If the University could establish such a 
professorship, not only would it be honoring the memory 
of Dr. Brinton, but it would also be giving further aid and 
encouragement to that branch of American science which 
he loved so well and worked so earnestly to advance. I 
hope something tangible will come of this suggestion. It 
will certainly meet with the hearty approval and cooperation 
of all workers in anthropology throughout the country. 

There is another proposition that I should like to see car- 
ried out as a memorial to Dr. Brinton. Our friend had the 
good fortune to collect a large library of works upon American 
languages, as well as upon other branches of the great sub- 
ject which he studied, and this library he gave to the Uni- 
versity. In this collection are many valuable manuscripts 
which will be made accessible to students. Among them 
there is a Maya Dictionary with manuscript additions by Be- 
rendt, and it seems to me that it would be a grand memorial 
to Dr. Brinton if the University would publish this work 
as a memorial volume. It would be a great aid to the 
students who are engaged in the study of the old civilizations 
of Mexico and Central America, and certainly this would be 
furthering the research in which Dr. Brinton was so greatly 
interested and to which he gave so much of his thought and 
time. May we not hope that this subject will receive the 
consideration of the authorities of the University ? 

Mr. Stewart Cdlin said : 

Mr. President : — I have the honor to present to you, as a 
gift to the American Philosophical Society from the Numis- 
matic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, a bronze 
medal of Dr. Brinton, struck by the Society which I repre- 
sent, in commemoration of the fortieth anniversary of its 
existence and the fifteenth of his Presidency. 

Dr. Brinton was the leading and inspiring spirit of the An- 
tiquarian Society for many years. The Society offers this 
medal as a tribute to his many services to science and a 
memorial of personal friendship and esteem on the part of 
its individual members. 


Dr. J. Cheston Morkis replied : 

The Eoman poet. Ilorace gave us as his epitaph — 

' ' Exegi monumentuin £ere perennius ! 
Non omnis moriar ! " 

So might our friend's lasting renown be well founded on 
the works written by him, a copy of which has just been 
presented to and received by the American Philosophical 
Society, in which and for which he labored so long and faith- 
fully. By them " he, being dead, yet speakcth." 

But there is a longing, born of sympath}^, in the human 
breast to know something of the human form, the efl&gies, of 
those whom we love and admire, and which the painter and 
sculptor try to satisfy. The materials they employ, however, 
are themselves so subject to the wearing tooth of time, so 
liable to the vicissitudes of existence, that the enduring 
bronze has been in all ages chosen as the best means of por- 
traying to future generations the features of those honored 
and renowned among men. To the study of the human race, 
as illustrated by medals and coins, their faithful contempo- 
rary records, our friend had long devoted his energies, and it 
is therefore eminently fitting that his own likeness should 
thus be added to the grand collection of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, which was for so many years in the cus- 
tody of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society over which 
he presided, and was then at his request deposited in the 
Pennsylvania Museum of Industrial Art at Memorial Hall. 

On behalf of the American Philosophical Society, there- 
fore, I hereby accept this beautiful, permanent and speaking 
memento of our late friend and honored member, and tender 
the thanks of the American Philosophical Society for it to 
the donors, the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society. 


























































Dr. W. J. McGee then delivered the following address on 
the ethnological work of Dr. Brinton : 

With the discovery of the New World, a series of new 
interests entered the minds of men. One of the most cap- 
tivating of these clustered about the Eed People of the new- 
found continents and islands ; and this interest was whetted 
by travelers' tales galore, always high-colored and often 
romantic. As exploration proceeded, the semi-romances 
grew into sober reality, as is ever the way of advancing 
knowledge, and the problems of the Red People assumed 
serious import throughout the intellectual world ; and in 
good time the New ^Vorld natives were slowly brought under 
systematic investigation by students and statesmen. At first 
the investigations were conducted in accordance with a plan 
imported from trans- Atlantic laboratories and universities ; 
and during this period American students made various 
contributions to the budding science of ethnology, among 
which the classic work of Samuel Gr. Morton stood well 
toward the fore if not in the lead. Meantime other aspects 
of the problems presented by the Red Men pressed on the 
citizens of the active republic planted in the Western world, 
and in response to the pressure an essentially distinct science 
arose — the science of men, considered not as animals but as 
human beings, and classified by what they do rather than by 
what they merely are. This may be called the New Ethnol- 
ogy, and it may fairly be deemed America's contribution 
to the sisterhood of sciences. 

The leading pioneer in the New Ethnology was Albert 
Gallatin, a statesman by profession, though a scientist by 
predilection, who essayed to classify the thousand tribes ot 
the United States by their language, and who thereby founded 
inductive Philology as a branch of the Science of Men ; 
when his work was done, his mantle passed down to the 
shoulders of Horatio Hale, who did noble service in shaping 
the science to the needs of critical students. The second 
pioneer in the New Ethnology caught inspiration from Gal- 
latin, yet blazed a new path in the wilderness of aboriginal 


relationsMps ; this was Lewis H. Morgan, who essayed to 
classify the Eed People in terms of their own social organi- 
zation, and thereby founded inductive Sociology as a second 
branch of the Science of Men. The third pioneer in the 
New Ethnology, whose career overlapped that of Morgan, 
pushed into the very depths of the most closely entangled 
aboriginal relationshijDS, and essayed — albeit cautiously and 
haltingly, as befitted the difficulty of the subject — to discuss 
and classify the Red People in terms of their own myths 
and beliefs ; and thereby he laid the foundation for an 
inductive Mythology (now called Sophiology) as a definite 
branch of the Science of Men. This third pioneer was 
Daniel Garrison Brinton. Other pioneers came after to 
found subsciences of the arts and industries of the abo- 
rigines, and finally to weld the series into the present well- 
rounded Science of Men ; most of these workers still live 
and continue adding to the light shed by the science on the 
entrancing problems of humanity, yet the growing radiance 
but brings out in stronger relief the enduring foundations 
laid down by the three pioneers, Gallatin, Morgan and Brin- 
ton. All honor to these pioneers, whose work lives after 
them to our common benefit ! 

The trio of founders of the New Ethnology wrought 
diversely, yet each in a manner befitting his temperament 
and his times. Gallatin gathered inspiration partly from the 
Red People themselves, but largely from travelers, and in 
only small degree from the books ; while his results, albeit 
foreshadowed in letters and addresses, were summarized in a 
single memoir of modest air and meagre volume — i. e., his 
contribution shines out as a single brilliant flash of genius. 
Morgan delved deeply in the language and lore of the Red 
People themselves, engaged in extensive correspondence, and 
pored over the literature of all primitive peoples ; his results 
reached the world through several publications, notably a 
noble monograph issued by the Smithsonian Institution ; so 
that his great contribution exemplifies the genius of work 
rather than that of inspiration, the method of creation rather 


than that of discovery. Influenced more by the second 
pioneer than the first, and constrained by conditions beyond 
his control, Brinton wrought slowly in laying his foundation, 
gathering his facts more largely from wide correspondence 
and stupendous literary search than from the tribesmen 
themselves ; his results were forecast in minor publications of 
the later 50's, and partially systematized in a notable work 
{The Myths of the New World) a decade later, yet were 
finally shaped only in his latest and richest contribution to 
the literature of science, Religions of Primitive Peoples, 
1897 ; hence his great achievement, like that of Morgan, 
expresses at once the genius of work and the method of 
science. The three contributions were alike in that (althongb 
based substantially on inductive work among the Red People 
of America) each affords a sure foundation for the Science of 
Men throughout the continents and islands of the entire 

While Brinton' s name stands among those of the pioneers, 
he was much more — he was an actual settler and an active 
producer, as well as a wilderness-breaker. Partly by reason 
of the complexity of his special line — a line woven from the 
strands running through all the simpler activities — partly 
because of his own remarkable versatility, Brinton trod the 
entire domain of humanity's science, and wherever his foot- 
steps fell there soon sprang golden harvests. Particularly 
noteworthy were his contributions to aboriginal linguistics in 
his classic ' ' Library of American Aboriginal Literature ' ' ; 
hardly less important were his contributions to primitive 
technology (including archa3ology), albeit made chiefly in 
notes and minor papers ; while science owes him a special 
debt for such general contributions as The American Race, 
1892, and Races and Peoples, 1890, Largely because of his 
versatility and his unsurpassed facility of expression through 
pen and tongue, he came to be regarded as a leading expo- 
nent of American Ethnology ; his position as a spokesman 
for a science was curiously like that of the elder Dana in 
geology, in that both were in chief measure reworkers of 
raw material produced by others, rather than original pro- 


ducers ; yet both assorted and spun and wove their threads 
with such consummate skill as to please the often supersen- 
sitive gatherers of the fibres no less than the often hypercriti- 
cal users of the fabrics. Brinton's breadth of range and his 
unsurpassed skill as an expositor of science stood out among 
his other strong characteristics, and placed him well forward 
among the leaders in American Ethnology throughout the 
quarter-century of his intellectual maturity. 

In one respect Brinton held a unique position among his 
fellow-ethnologists — he was the leading ethnologic critic of 
the country, if not of the world. A voracious yet judicious 
reader, a vigorous yet discriminating thinker, and a cour- 
ageous yet courteous writer, it fell to him more than any con- 
temporary to dispense encouragement and advice, as well as 
rebuke and warning, among the multitude of aspirants for 
ethnologic prestige ; and an important part of his life-record 
appears in numberless notes and reviews in several scientific 
journals, and still more innumerable personal letters. By 
some his verdicts were deemed severe, and there were some 
notable appeals and a few cases of long-nurtured bitterness 
against him ; yet there are none to scan the entire course of 
the Brintonian tribunal and say that, on the whole, its influ- 
ence was not salutary. The just judge cannot hope to escape 
revilement by some, yet he may hope to earn the respect — 
albeit silent — of the majority, and to add a pillar to the tem- 
ple of justice even if he leave no monument in his own 
memory ; and it may be aflirmed with full confidence that 
Brinton's judicial utterances brought him much more of 
respect than of contumely, and materially strengthened the 
superstructure of the science to which his life was devoted. 
It is not too much to say that a considerable portion of 
American ethnologic utterances during the last decade were 
really addressed to an audience of one, and that one the 
fearless critic of Philadelphia ; and a score of expressions 
of sorrow at his loss have been coupled with sighs of regret 
that late-born brain-children have missed the baptism of 
public mark at his hands. 


It is not vouchsafed unto men, any more than to other 
things weighed and measured by the ever- varying standards 
of human thought, to attain perfection ; and Brinton was no 
more infalhble than other diligent and conscientious creators 
of knowledge. His very versatility stood in the way of that 
thoroughness in specialties which appeals to the average 
scientist ; his inability to gather data more largely at first 
hand rendered him in some measure a closet student — that 
thing of often undue reproach among original workers. Be- 
ginning his researches with the dawn of the Science of Men, 
he inherited a tinge of scholasticism and perhaps a taint of 
mysticism to interweave his splendid fabrics in slender 
threads of weaker fibre ; yet these sources of weakness are 
conspicuous only by contrast with the excellences of his 
work, and by no means demean its current and permanent 

So the survey of Brinton' s ethnologic work in its entirety 
serves but to show in clear light the profound debt of the 
Science of Men to his genius and assiduity. He was the 
third pioneer in the New Ethnology, and the founder of that 
subscience which deals with the myths and beliefs of primi- 
tive peoples ; he was a frequent and luminous contributor to 
all other branches of the science ; and he was the foremost 
critic, constructive as well as destructive, of his generation. 
Brinton' s name must be writ large and strong in the history 
of Humanity's Science. 




The basis of the following list is an annotated bibliography 
down to 1892 prepared and printed by Dr. Brinton. In De- 
cember, 1897, Prof. F. W. Putnam printed a list of titles 
from information furnished by Dr. Brinton. In November, 
1898, Dr. Brinton printed a " Eecord of Study in Aboriginal 
American Languages," giving a list of his chief works and 
papers on American linguistics, with descriptive comment. 

Reviews of books, short notes, purely literary articles and 
medical writings have not been included here, the object 
being to furnish a reference list of original contributions to 
science. Papers reprinted separately are marked with a star. 


Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, its Literary History, Indian 
Tribes and Antiquities. 8vo, cloth, pp. 202. Joseph Sabin, 
Philadelphia, 1859. 

Based upon observations made during a residence of some months in 
the peninsula. 

The Shawnees and their Migrations, pp. 4. Historical Maga- 
zine, Vol. X, pages 1-4, January, 1866 (Morrisania, New York). 

Traces the wanderings of the Shawnees, in the eighteenth century, 
from the Savannah to the Susquehanna rivers. 

The Mound-builders of the Mississippi Valley, pp. 5. Histori- 
cal Magazine, Vol. xi, pages 33-37, February, 1866. 

This article was the first attempt to prove by documentary evidence 
that the Mound -builders belonged to the present race of Indians and 
were probably related to well-known tribes. 

Early Spanish Mining in Northern Georgia, pp. 3. Historical 
Magazine, Vol. x, pages 137-139, May, 1866. 

Adduces evidence to show that the gold mines of northern Georgia 
were worked by the Spaniards of the seventeenth century. 

Artificial Shell Deposits in the United States, pp. 3. Annual 
Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the year 1866, pages 356- 


Relates principally to the shell deposits on the Tennessee river. 



* The Natchez of Louisiana, an Offshoot of the Civilized Nations 
of Central America, pp. 3. Historical Magazine, Vol. i, second 
series, pages 16-18, January, 1867. 

A suggestion of linguistic aflSnities based on inadequate materials. 
The Myths of Manibozho and loskeha. pp. 4. Historical Mag- 
azine, Vol. ii, second series, pages 3-6, July, 1867. 

Describes briefly the traits of these two analogous figures in Algonkin 
and Iroquois mythology. 

A New Imposition, p. i. Historical Magazine, Vol. ii, second 
series, page 180, September, 1867. 

Shows the fraudulent character of the work entitled " Life and Ad- 
ventures of William Filley, who was Stolen by the Indians, ' ' etc. 


The Myths of the New World. A Treatise on the Symbolism 
and Mythology of the Red Race of America, pp. 307. Leypoldt 
& Holt, New York, 1868. 

This work aims by a comparison and analysis of numerous native 
American religions to set forth the general principles of mythology, 
symbolism and rite which are common to all, and which prove an iden- 
tity of type among them. Its chapters treat of the idea of God ; the 
sacred number (four) : the symbols of the bird and the serpent ; myths 
of water, fire and the thunder storm ; of the creation, deluge and last 
day ; of the origin of man and the destiny of the soul. 

The Abbe Brasseur and his Labors, pp. 8. Lippincotf s Maga- 
zine, Vol. i, pages 79-86, January, 1868. 

A sketch of the life and works of this eminent Americanist, the Abbe 
E. C. Brasseur de Bourbourg, with extracts from the Popol Vuh, in the 
original Kiche, and translated. 


Remarks on the Nature of the Maya Group of Languages, pp. 
3. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xi, 
pages 4-6, January, 1869. 

Gives a brief account of the grammatical structure of the Maya dia- 
lects, with some reference to their literature. 

A Notice of Some Manuscripts in Central American Languages, 
pp. 9. American Journal of Science and Arts (New Haven), Vol. 
xlvii, pages 222-230, March, 1869. 

Describes unpublished MSS. in the Choi and Cakchiquel dialects of 
the Maya, especially the Dictionaries of Goto and Varela. 


Remarks on the MS. Arawack Vocabulary of Schultz. p. 2. 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xi, pages 
1 1 3-1 1 4, May, 1869. 

A note announcing the identification by the writer of the primitive 
tongue of the West Indies with the Arawack of South America. 
A Guide Book of Florida and the South, for Tourists, Invalids 
and Emigrants. With a Map of the St. John's River, pp. 136 
George Maclean, Philadelphia, 1869. 

A work intended for practical purposes only. 


Grammar of the Choctaw Language. Prepared by the Rev. 
Cyrus Byington and edited by Dr. Brinton. pp. 50. Proceedings 
of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xi, pages 31 7-36 7 j Feb- 
ruary, 1870. 

The only grammar of this language ever published, and the result of 
forty years' study by an American missionary. 
Contributions to a Grammar of the Muskokee Language, pp. 9. 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xi, pages 
301-309, March, 1870. 

Based on original materials obtained from residents on the Creek 

* The National Legends of the Chahta-Muskokee Tribes, pp. 13. 
Historical Magazine, Vol. ii, second series, pages 11 8-1 26, 1870. 

Contains the original legend of the Creeks, as preserved in picture- 
writing on a buffalo skin, and translated by their chief, Chekilli, in 
1735. This publication formed the basis of Number IV of Brinton's 
Library of Aboriginal American Literature, "A Migration Legend of 
the Creek Indians," edited by l^Ir. Albert S. Gatchet (1884). 

*The Ancient Phonetic Alphabet of Yucatan, pp. 6. American 
Bibliopolist, Vol. ii, pages 143-148, April and May, 1870. 

The first reproduction in America of Landa's celebrated Maya al- 


* The Arawack Language of Guiana in its Linguistic and Ethno- 
logical Relations. 410. pp. 18. Transactions of the American 
Philosophical Society, Vol. xiv, pages 427-444. 

Shows that the natives of the Bahamas and Antilles at the discovery 
were of Arawack stock ; contains an analytical vocabulary of the Taino, 
or native language of Haiti, proving it to be Arawack. 



* On the Language of the Natchez, pp. 17. Proceedings of the 
American Philosophical Society, Vol. xiii, pages 483-499, Decem- 
ber, 1873. 

Presents a vocabulary of several hundred words obtained from a 
native of the tribe, with a discussion on their affinities. 


The Myths of the New World. A Treatise on the Symbolism 
and Mythology of the Red Race of America, pp. 331. New 
York, 1876. 

The second edition of this work. 
The Religious Sentiment ; Its Source and Aim. A Contribution 
to the Science and Philosophy of Religion, pp. 284. New York, 
Henry Holt & Company, 1876. 

A general examination of the origin of religioQs. The author says in 
his preface : " The main questions I have had bef jre me are such as : 
What led men to imagine gods ? What still prompts enlightened na- 
tions to worship? Is religion a transient phase of development? Is 
faith the last ground of adoration, or is reason?" etc. The chapters 
treat of the emotional and the rational elements of the religious senti- 
ment, prayer, myths, cults, the momenta of religious thought, etc. 


The Brinton Family, pp. 60. Media, 1878. 
(One hundred copies privately printed.) 


Obituary Notice of Dr. Isaac Hays. Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society, Vol. xviii, pages 259-260, May, 1879. 


The Society's Name. Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, Vol. xviii, pages 553-558, March, 1880. 

Address at celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the 

Obituary Notice of Dr. John Neill. Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society, Vol. xix, pages 161-162, November, 1880. 


Memoir of S, S. Haldeman, A.M., Ph.D., etc. pp. 7. Pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xix, pages 279- 
285, February, 1881. 


* Notes on the Codex Troano and Maya Chronology, pp. 6. 
American Naturalist, Vol. xv, pages 719-724, September, 1881. 

An explanation of certain obscure points in the calendar of the ancient 

The Probable Nationality of the Mound-builders, pp. 10. 
American Antiquarian, Vol. iv, pages 9-18, October, 1881. 

Maintains the probability that the builders of the Ohio mounds were 
of the same stock as the mound-building tribes found by early explorers 
in the area of the Gulf States. 

The Names of the Gods in the Kiche Myths, Central America, 
pp. 38. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 
xix, pages 613-647, November. 

An analysis of the names of the divinities mentioned in the Popol 
Vuh, and an eifort to define their attributes. 


American Hero-Myths. A Study in the Native Religions of the 
Western Continent, pp. 251. Philadelphia, H. C. Watts & Co., 

A monograph on the myth of the "culture hero," or legendary civil- 
izer and tribal deity so common among American tribes. That he was 
generally represented of fair complexion adds interest to the subject. 
Kepresentative figures treated are Quetzalcoatl, Viracocha, Michabo, 
Itzamna, etc. 

The Maya Chronicles, pp. 279. Philadelphia, 1882. No. I 
of Brinton's Library of Aboriginal American Literature. 

This volume contains five brief chronicles in the Maya language of 
Yucatan, written shortly after the conquest, and carrying the history of 
that people back many centuries. To these is added a history of the 
conquest, written in his native tongue by a ISIaya Chief in 1562. The 
texts are preceded by an introduction on the history of the Mayas, their 
language, calendar, numerical system, etc., and a vocabulary is added 
at the close. 

The Graphic System and Ancient Records of the Mayas. Con- 
tributions to American Ethnology, Vol. v, pages xvii-xxxvii. Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1882, U. S. Geographical and Geological Survey 
of the Rocky Mountain Region. 

Contains, 1, Descriptions of the Maya system of writing by Spanish 
writers; 2, by native authors ; 3, enumeration of extant MSS. ; 4, a 
review of the efibrts at interpreting them. 


The Bronze Age in Great Britain. Penn Monthly, Vol, xiii, 
pages 43-48, January, 1S82. 

Review of Sir John Evan's "Ancient Bronze Implements of Great 

* The Books of Chilan Balam, the Prophetic and Historic Records 
of the Mayas of Yucatan, pp. 15. Illustrated. Penri Monthly, 
Vol. xiii, pages 261-275, April, 1882. 

These "Books" are the sacred records of the modern natives of 
Yucatan. They are curiously illustrated, and date mostly from the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The above is a detailed descrip- 
tion of the wholly unpublished originals. 


Aboriginal American Authors and their Productions, especially 
those in the Native Language, pp. 63. Philadelphia, 1883. 

Gives a list of authors belonging to native American tribes and notices 
of the works composed by them in their own languages. 

The Guegiience : a Comedy Ballet in the Nahuatl-Spanish Dia- 
lect of Nicaragua. pp.94. Illustrated. Philadelphia, 1883. No. 
Ill of Brinton's Library of Aboriginal American Literature. 

A curious and unique specimen of the native comic dances, with dia- 
logues, called bniles, formerly common in Central America. It is in 
mixed Nahuatl-Spanish jargon of Nicaragua, and shows distinctive fea- 
tures of native authorship. The introduction treats of the ethnology of 
Nicaragua, and the local dialects, musical instruments and dramatic 
representations. A map and a number of illustrations are added. 

The Journey of the Soul. A Comparative Study from Aztec, 
Aryan and Egyptian Mythology, pp. 9. Proceedings of the Numis- 
matic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, in celebration of the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of its foundation, Philadelphia, 1883, pages 


Points out the singular similarity in the notions of the three peoples 
named with regard to the fate of the soul. 
Recent European Contributions to the Study of American Archse- 
ology. pp.3. Extracts from \}n& Minutes of the Numismatic and 
Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, March, 1883, page 7. 

American Archaeology. Encyclopaedia Britannica, American 
Supplement. Vol. i, pages 278-286. 

* The Folk-lore of Yucatan, pp.13. Folk-lore Journal {l^ondon) 
Vol. i, pages 244-256, August, 1883. 

Derived almost wholly from original unpublished material. 



* A Grammar of the Cakchiquel Language of Guatemala. Trans- 
lated from an Ancient Spanish MS., with an Introduction and Nu- 
merous Additions, pp. 67. Proceedings of the Aitierican Philo- 
sophical Society, Vol. xxi, pages 345-412, January, 1884. 

Though not the only, yet a valuable, grammar of this important dia- 
lect, known as the " metropolitan language" of Guatemala. 

* Memoir of Dr. Karl Hermann Berendt. pp. 6. Proceedings of 
the American A?itiquarian Society, Vol. iii, new series, pages 205- 
210, April, 1884. 

Indian Languages in South America. Science, Vol. iv, page 
i59j August 29. 

Notices the works of von Tschudi, Pelleschi and Carrera. 

* On the Language and Ethnological Position of the Xinca Indians 
of Guatemala, pp. 9. Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, Vol, xxii, pages 89-97, October, 1884. 

Contains extended vocabularies of three dialects of the Xinca language, 
from unpublished sources. 

* On the Cuspidiform Petroglyphs, or so-called Bird-track Sculp- 
tures, of Ohio. pp. 3. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, pages 275-277, October, 1884. 

* On Fired Stones and Prehistoric Implements, p. i. Proceed- 
ings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, page 279, 
November, 1884. 

* Impression of the Figures on a " Meday Stick." p. i. Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, page 
278, November, 1884. 

North African Archaeology. Science, Vol. iv, p. 438, November, 


Notes of a communication on the Stone Age in Northern Africa. 


The Lenape and their Legends ; with the Complete Text and 
Symbols of the Walum Olum, a New Translation and an Inquiry 
into its Authenticity, pp. 262. Illustrated. Philadelphia, 1885. 
No. V of Brinton's Library of Aboriginal American Literature. 

Contains the complete text and symbols, 184 in iiumber, of the 
"Walum Olum, or Red Score, of the Delaware Indians, with the full 
original text, and a new translation, notes and vocabulary. A lengthy 


introduction treats of the Lenapo or Delawares, their history, customs, 
myths, language, etc., with numerous references to other tribes of the 
great Algonkiu stock. 

The Annals of the Cakchiquels. The Original Text, with a 
Translation, Notes and Introduction, pp. 234. Illustrated. Phila- 
delphia, 1885. No. VI of Brinton's Library of Aboriginal Ameri- 
can Literature. 

The original text, written about 1562, by a member of the reigning 
family, with a translation, introduction, notes and vocabulary. This 
may be considered one of the most important historical documents relat- 
ing to the pre-Columbian period. 

Man in the Stone Age. Science, Vol. v, p. 3, January, 1885. 
* The Lineal Measures of the Semi-civilized Nations of Mexico 
and Central America, pp. 14. Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society^ Vol. xii, pages 194-207, January, 1885. 

Defines the units of measurement in use among the ancient Mayas, 
Cakchiquels and Aztecs. 

Notes on Aboriginal Literature. The Afnerican Antiquarian 
and Orietital Journal, Vol. vii, page 119, 1885. 

Anthropos and Anthropopithecus. Science, Vol. v, page 104, 
February, 1885. 

The Taensa Grammar and Dictionary. A Deception Exposed, 
pp. 6. American Antiquariaft, Vol. vii, pages 108-113, March, 

Did Cortes Visit Palenque ? Science, Vol. v, page 248, March, 

Shows that he did not. 
The Philosophic Grammar of American Languages as set forth 
by Wilhelm von Humboldt ; with the translation of an unpublished 
Memoir by him on the American Verb. pp. 49. Proceedings oj 
the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxii, pages 306-354, 
March, 1885. 

The unequaled ability of Wilhelm von Humboldt in the field of 
linguistic philosophy, and his especial interest in American languages, 
endow his opinions with peculiar interest to students of this branch. 

The Chief God of the Algonkins, in his Character as a Cheat 
and Liar. pp. 3. Af?terican Antiquarian, Vol. vii, pages 137- 
139, May, 1885. 

Points out and explains the incongruous character assigned their deity 
by the Algonkins. 


The Sculptures of Cozumelhuapa. Science, Vol. vi, page 42* 
July, 1885. 

Indicates that these sculptures were probably the work of the 
Nahuatl-speaking Pipiles of Guatemala. 

The Taensa Grammar and Dictionary. A Reply to M. Lucien 
Adam. pp. 2. American A?iiiquariaji, Vol. vii, pages 275-276, 
September, 1885. 

These two articles pointed out that the Taensa language, so called, 
supposed by certain linguists to have once existed on the lower 
Mississippi, was in fact the fabrication of some young French Semin- 

* Notes on the Mangue ; an extinct dialect formerly spoken in 
Nicaragua, pp. 20. Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, Vol. xiii, pages 238-257, October, 1885. 

Almost entirely from unpublished sources ; proves the Mangue to be 
a dialect of the Chapanec of Chiapas. 

* American Languages, and why we should Study them. An Ad- 
dress delivered before the Pennsylvania Historical Society, March 
9, 1885. pp. 21. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biog- 
raphy, Vol. ix, pages 15-35. 

A plea for greater attention to the study of the native tongues of 

* On Polysynthesis and Incorporation as characteristics of Ameri- 
can Languages, pp. 39. Proceedings of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society, Vol. xxiii, pages 48-86, October, 1885. 

Claims that the traits named are so widespread in American languages 
that they are virtually characteristic of them. 

Notes on American Ethnology. The American Antiquarian and 
Oriental Journal, Vol. vii, pages 301-34 and 378. September and 
November, 1885. 


* Anthropology and Ethnology. 4to, pp. 184. Iconographic 
Encyclopcedia, Vol. i, Philadelphia, pages 1-184. 

* Prehistoric Archaeology. 4to, pp. 116. Iconographic Encyclo- 
pcedia, Vol. ii, Philadelphia. 

These two extended essays embrace the archaeology of both hemi- 
spheres, and the general principles of ethnology as a science. They are 
not published separately from the work to which they were contributed. 


* The Study of the Nahuatl Language. pp. 7. Americatt 
Antiquarian, Vol. viii, pages 22-27, January, 1886. 

^Mentions the principal grammars and dictionaries of which the 
student should avail himself. 

On the Ikonomatic Method of Phonetic Writing, with Special 
Reference to American Archaeology, pp. 14. Proceedings of the 
Atnerican Philosophical Society, A^ol. xxiii, pages 503-514, October, 

The method of writing called by the author "ikonomatic" is that 
based on the principle of the rebus. It is shown to prevail extensively 
in ancient graphic systems, especially in the Mexican picture writing. 

* The Conception of Love in Some American Languages, pp. 
18. Proceedings of the AniericaJi Philosophical Society, Vol. xxiii, 
pages 546-561, November, 1886. 

Analyzes the words for love and friendship in five American linguistic 
stocks in order to show their true sense and the development of the 

* The Phonetic Elements in the Graphic System of the Mayas and 
Mexicans, pp. 11. Illustrated. American Antiquarian, Yo\. vm, 
pages 347-357, November, 1886. 

Points out to what extent phoneticism probably existed in the methods 
of writing in use among these nations. 

Los Libros de Chilan Balam. 4to, pp. 10. Anales del Museo 
Nacional de Mexico, tomo iii, pages 92-101. Mexico, 1886. 

A translation, with additions, of the article above referred to on the 
Books of Chilan Balam. 

Notes on American Ethnology. The American Antiquarian 
and Oriental Journal, Vol. viii, pages 59, 121, 250, 381. 1886. 


Ancient Nahuatl Poetry ; containing the Nahuatl Text of XXVII 
Ancient Mexican Poems ; with Translation, Introduction, Notes, 
and Vocabulary, pp. 177. Philadelphia, 1887. No. VII of 
Brinton's Library of Aboriginal American Literature. 

In this volume twenty-seven songs in the original Nahuatl are pre- 
sented, with translation, notes, vocabulary, etc. Many of them date 
from before the conquest, and none later than the sixteenth century. 
They have remained wholly unpublished and untranslated ; several are 
attributed to the famous royal poet, Nezahualcoyotl . The introduction 
describes the ancient poetry of the Nahuas in all its bearings. 

* Critical Remarks on the Editions of Diego de Landa's Writings. 


pp. 8. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 
xxiv, pages i-8, January, 1887. 

Comparing the edition of Landa's work edited by the Abbe Brasseur 
de Bourbourg (Paris, 1864) with that issued at Madrid in 1884. 

* A Review of the Data for the Study of the Prehistoric Chron- 
ology of America, pp. 21. Proceedings of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advajicement of Sciefice, Vol. xxxvi, pages 283-301, 

Address, as Vice-President of the Association, on the probable 
antiquity of man on the American continent. Abstract in Science, Vol. 
X, p. 76. 

The Subdivisions of the Palaeolithic Period. Proceedings of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol. xxxvi, 
page 315, 1887. 

Points out the presence of simple or of compound implements as a 
criterion of antiquity. 

* Were the Toltecs an Historic Nationality? pp. 13. Proceed- 
ings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxiv, pages 229- 
241, September, 1887. 

Disproves the existence of the Toltecs as a nationality, and shows 
that their alleged "empire" is a baseless fable. 

On Certain Supposed Nanticoke Words, Shown to be of African 
Origin, pp. 5. American Antiquariafi, Vol. ix, pages 350-354, 
November, 1887. 

A series of numerals, etc., hitherto supposed to belong to the Nanti- 
coke dialect, is shown to be Mandingo (African). 

* On the So-called Alagiilac Language of Guatemala, pp. 12. 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxiv, pages 
366-377, November, 1887. 

Proves by the evidence of previously unpublished material that this 
so-called language is merely a dialect of the Nahuatl of Mexico. 

* On an Ancient Human Footprint from Nicaragua, p. 8. Pro- 
ceedings of the Afnerican Philosophical Society, Vol. xxiv, pages 
437-444, November, 1887. 

Maintains that the human footprints found in the tufa along the 
shores of I.,ake Managua are probably not of extreme antiquity. 

The Rate of Change in American Languages. Science, Vol. x, 
page 274, December, 1887. 

Illustrates from various examples how slight is the change undergone 
by American languages in several centuries. 


Iroquois and Eskimos. Science, Vol. x, page 300, December, 

American Aboriginal Poetry, pp.21. Proceeditjf^s of the Numis- 
matic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia ioi \\\Q years 1887- 
1889, pages 17-37. 

Contains numerous selections from unpublished or rare poems by 
native American authors, -with a literary analysis of their character. 

Notes on American Ethnology. The American Antiquarian and 
Oriental Journal, Vol. ix, pages 53, 115. 


* Report of the Committee appointed to examine into the 
Scientific Value of Volapiik. pp. 15. Proceedings of the Ainerican 
Philosophical Society, Vol. xxv, pages 3-17, January, 1888. 

Report, as chairman of the committee, deciding against Volapiik, on 
account of its grammatic structure. 

* On the Chane-abal (Four-Language) Tribe and Dialect of 
Chiapas, pp. 20. America?i Anthropologist, Vol. i, pages 'j'j-gS. 
January, 1888. 

Description, with extensive vocabularies from unpublished sources, of 
a curiously mixed population, chiefly of Maya blood, in the State of 
Chiapas, Mexico. 

Linguistique Americaine. pp. 3. Revue de Linguistique , Vol. 
xxi, pages 54-56, Paris, January, 1S88. 

Lenape Conversations, pp. 6. Journal of American Folk-lore, 
Vol. i, pages 37-42, April-June, 1888. 

Gleanings from conversations with the Eev. A. S. Anthony on subjects 
of tribal folk-lore. 

Early Man in Spain. Proceedings of the American Association for 
the Advancetnent of Science, 1888, Vol. xxxvii, pages 323-324. 

Review of late investigations into the palaeolithic and neolithic 
periods in the Iberian peninsula. 

Traits of Primitive Speech Illustrated from American Languages. 
Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement oj 
Science, Vol. xxxvii, pages 324-325, 1888. 

The above paper refers to certain traits in American tongues which 
seem to be survivals of man's earliest forms of articular speech. 

On a Limonite Human Vertebra from Florida. Proceedings of the 


American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol. xxxvi, 
page 325. 

Human bones transformed into limonite have been found in Southern 
Florida. Their extreme antiquity has not been demonstrated. 

On the Alleged Mongoloid Affinities of the American Race. 
Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancejnent of 
Science, Vol. xxxvii, page 325, 18S8. 

Attacks the notion prevalent among anthropologists that the American 
Indians possess Mongolian or Mongoloid traits, or should be classed as 
one race vrith the Asiatics. 

* The Language of Palaeolithic Man. pp.14. Proceedings of the 
Americait Philosophical Society, Vol. xxv, pages 212-225, October, 

* Obituary Notice of Philip H. Law, Esq. pp. 7. Proceedings 
of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxv, pages 225-231, 
October, 1888. 

* The Ta Ki, the Svastika and the Cross in America, pp. 11. 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxvi, pages 
177-187, December, 1888. 

Shows that these sacred symbols, so widely disseminated in the Old 
World, occur also in America and were there spontaneously developed. 
Facettes of Love : From Browning. An Introductory Address. 
pp. 35. Philadelphia, November, 1888. 

A study of the passion of love as illustrated in the works principally 
of Eobert Browning. 
On the Nahuatl Version of Sahagun's " Historia de la Nueva 
Espafia." pp. 7. Compte-Rendu, Congres International des 
Americanistes, f^^ Session. Berlin, 1888, pages 83-89. 

Description of the original MS. of a portion of Sahagun's history 
preserved in the private library of the King of Spain. 

A Lenape-English Dictionary. From an anonymous MS., in the 
archives of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem, Pa. Edited, with 
additions, by Daniel G. Brinton and Rev. Albert Seqaqkind 
Anthony. 410, pp. 236. Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1888. 

The Rev. Mr. Anthony, a native of Delaware, highly educated, gave 
close attention to a review of the original MS., so that the above may 
be regarded as a standard dictionary of the old Lenape, or Delaware, 



* On a Petroglyph from the Island of St. Vincent, West Indies, 
pp. 6. Illustrated. Proceedings of the Acaderyiy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, pages 417-420. 

Describes a rock- writing or picture, probably of Carib origin. 
On the " Stone of the Giants" (near Orizaba, Mexico), pp. 
8. Proceedings of the Numismatic and Antiquariafi Society of 
Philadelphia for the years 1887-1889, pages 78-85. 

Presents an original interpretation of the remarkable inscription on 
this striking monument of Mexican antiquity. 

The Aims and Traits of a World-Language. An Address before 
the Nineteenth Century Club, New York. pp. 23. Werner's 
Voice Magazine, New York, 1889. 

Attempts to define the characteristics of a tongue for general inter- 
communication, should such be desired. 

The Ethnologic Affinities ot the Ancient Etruscans, pp. 22. 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxvi, pages 
506-527, October, 1889. 

Argues in favor of the probability that the ancient Etruscans were of 
Hamitic (Berber, Libyan) origin, and came to Italy from North Africa. 


* Supplementary Report of the Committee appointed to consider 
an International Language, pp. 7. Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society, Vol. xxv, pages 312-318. 

Eeport as chairman of the committee. 
Rig Veda Americanus. Sacred Songs of the Ancient Mexicans, 
with a Gloss in Nahuatl. With Paraphrase, Notes and Vocabulary. 
pp.95. Illustrated. Philadelphia. No. VIII of Brinton's Library 
of Aboriginal American Literature, 1890. 

Presents the original text with a gloss in Nahuatl of twenty sacred 
chants of the ancient Mexicans. They are preserved in the Madrid MSS. 
of Father Sahagun, and date anterior to the conquest. A paraphrase, 
notes and a vocabulary are added, and a number of curious illustrations 
are reproduced from the original. 

Essays of an Americanist. I. Ethnologic and Archjeologic. 11. 
Mythology and Folk-lore. III. Graphic Systems and Literature. 
IV. Linguistic. pp. 489. Illustrated. Philadelphia, 1890, 
Porter & Coates. 

This volume is mainly a selection from the author's earlier essays on 
American topics. Its contents are as follows : 


Paet I. — Ethnologic axd Aech^ologic, 

A Review of the Data for the Study of the Prehistoric Chronology of 

On Palseoliths, American and other. 

On the alleged Mongolian Afl&nities of the American Pace. 

The Probable Nationality of the Mound-builders of the Ohio Valley. 

The Toltecs of Mexico and their Fabulous Empire. 

Part II. — Mythology axd Folk-loee. 

The Sacred Names in the Mythology of the Quiches of Guatemala. 

The Hero-God of the Algonkins as a Cheat and Liar. 

The Journey of the Soul in Egyptian, Aryan and American My- 

The Sacred Symbols of the Cross, the Svastika and the Triquetrum in 

The Modern Folk-lore of the Natives of Yucatan. 

The Folk-lore of the Modem Lenape Indians. 

Paet III.— Geaphic Systems and Liteeature. 

The Phonetic Elements in the Hieroglyphs of the Mayas and Mexi- 

The Ikonomatic Method of Phonetic Writing used by the Ancient 

The Writing and Records of the Ancient Mayas of Yucatan. 

The Books of Chilan Balam, the Sacred Volume of the Modern 

Translation of the Inscription on "The Stone of the Giants" at 
Orizaba, Mexico. 

The Poetry of the American Indians, with Numerous Examples. 

Paet FV. — Lixguistic. 

American Aboriginal Languages, and why we should stndy them. 

Wilhelm von Humboldt's Researches in American Languages. 

Some Characteristics of American Languages. 

The Earliest Form of Human Speech, as Revealed by American 

The Conception of Love, as Expressed in some American Languages. 

The Lineal Measures of the Semi-Civilized Nations of ^Mexico and 
Central America. 

The Curious Hoax about the Taensa Language. 

Races and Peoples; Lectures on the Science of Ethnography, 
pp. 313. Illustrated. New York, 1890. N. D. C. Hodges. 

Contains ten lectures on the general science of Ethnography, as fol- 
lows : I. The Physical Elements of Ethnography. II. The Psychical 
. Elements of Ethnography. III. The Beginnings and Subdivisions of 
Races. IV. The Eurafrican Race : South Mediterranean Branch. V. 


The Eurafrican Kace : North Mediterranean Branch. VI. The Aust- 
african Kace. Til. The Asian Race. VIII. Insular and Literal 
Peoples. IX. The American Eace. X. Problems and Predictions. 
Maps, diagrams and cuts are added. For a lull description of this work, 
see Prof. Mason in "Smithsonian Report " for 1890, pp. 541-545. 

The Cradle of the Semites. A Paper read before the Philadel- 
phia Oriental Club. pp. 26. Philadelphia, 1890. 

Presents reasons for believing that the ancestors of the Semitic stock 
came from northwestern Africa at a very remote epoch. 

On the Chontallis and Popolucas. pp. 9. Comptc- Rendu du 
Congres International des Americajiistes, 1890, pages 556-564. 

Showing that these are not tribal designations, but common terms in 

the Nahuatl tongue applied to various tribes, and hence of no ethnic 


Giordano Bruno, Philosopher and Martyr. Two addresses by 

Daniel G. Brinton, AI.D., and Thomas Davidson, A.M. pp. 68. 

David McKay, Philadelphia, 1890. 

A defense of the life and opinions of this apostle of the Renaissance. 
The African Race in America. Chambers^ Cyclopedia, New edi- 
tion. Vol. vii, London and Philadelphia, 1S93, pages 428-430. 
Article Negroes. 

* Folk-lore of the Bones, pp. 6. Journal of American Folk-lore, 
Vol. iii, pages 17-22, January, 1890. 

* On Etruscan and Libyan Names. A Comparative Study, pp. 
14. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxviii, 
pages 39-52, February, 1890. 

A study of the linguistic affinity apparently existing between names 
of divinities, places and persons in ancient Etruria and Northern Africa. 

* The New Poetic Form as Shown in Browning, pp. 13. Poet- 
lore, Vol. ii, pages 234-246, May, 1890. 

^ Note on the Puquina Language of Peru. pp. 7. Proceedings 
of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxviii, pages 242-248, 
November, 1890. 

Contains texts, etc., of this little-known tongue, from the extremely 
rare work of Geronimo de Ore, entitled Bituale Peruanum. 

The American Race : A Linguistic Classification and Ethno- 
graphic Description of the Native Tribes of North and South 
America, pp. 392. N. D, C. Hodges, New York, 1891. 

This is the first attempt at a systematic classification of the whole 
American race on the basis of language. It also embraces descriptions 


of the arts, religions, culture and physical traits of the various tribes, 
while general questions concerning the origin, etc., of the race as a whole 
are discussed in the Introduction. The Linguistic Appendix presents 
vocabularies of one hundred and twenty different languages and dialects 
from Mexico, Central and South America. Under each "linguistic 
stock " all the tribes speaking related dialects are grouped, with the geo- 
graphical location of each. The Index contains over 1400 names of tribes. 

* The International Congress of Americanists, pp.5. American 
Anthropologist, Vol. iv, pages 33-37, January, 1891. 

Notice of the proceedings at the Eighth Session, Paris, 1890. 

* Vocabularies from the Mosquito Coast, pp. 4. Proceedings oj 
the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxix, pages 1-4, March, 

Unpublished material from the tribe of the Eamas, showing that they 
are a member of the Changuina stock of the Isthmus of Panama. 

Inscriptions from Easter Island, p. i. Proceedings of the Nu- 
mismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia for the years 
1890-1891, pages 61-62. 

These articles explain that the alleged hieroglyphic script of the 
Easter Islanders is similar to and not higher than the symbolic picture- 
writing of the Algoukin Indians. Another article on the same subject 
in Science, May 8, 1892. 


* Observations on the Chinantec Language of Mexico and on the 
Mazatec Language and its Affinities. 8vo, pp. 20. Proceedings 
of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxx, pages 22-39, Janu- 
ary, 1892. 

Analyzes the Chinantec from the Doctrina of Barreda ; shows that the 
Mazatec is probably affined to the Mangue and to some Costa Eica dia- 
lects. The reprint is bound up with the "Studies in South American 
Languages. ' ' 

* Studies in South American Languages. 8vo, pp. 67. Philadel- 
phia, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxx, 
pages 45-105, January and February, 1892. 

Contains ten studies, mostly from MS. sources, as follows : — 
I. The Tacana language. II. The Jivaro language. III. The Cholona 
language. IV. The Leca language. V. A text in the Manao dialect. 
VI. The Bonari dialect of the Carib Stock. VII. The Hongote language 
and the Patagonian dialects. VIII. The Dialects and Affinities of the 
Kechua language. IX. Affinities of South and North American lan- 
guages. X. On the Dialects of the Betoyas and Tucanos. (The Hon- 
gote subsequently proved to be a North American language.) 


* Further Notes on Fuegian Languages, pp. 6. Proceedings of 
the Amefican Philosophical Society, Vol. xxx, pages 249-254, April, 

Examines an Alikuluf vocabulary of 1695 ; gives a vocabulary of the 
Onas tongue and shows its probable affinity with Yahgan ; explains the 
position of the Hongote. 

Current Notes on Anthropology. 

Notes beginning in March, 1892, on the general progress of Anthro- 
pologic science throughout the world. Continued with few interrup- 
tions down to the time of the author's death. 
Anthropology, as a Science and as a Branch of University Edu- 
cation in the United States, pp. 15. Philadelphia. 

Aims to present a complete scheme for the teaching of Anthropology 
in Institutions of tlie higher education in the United States, and pre- 
sents its claims for the attention of Universities. 

* The Written Language of the Ancient Mexicans. 4to, pp. 6. 
Trafisactions of the Attierican Philosophical Society, Vol. xvii, pages 

Introduction to the fac-simile of the Codex Poinsett published by the 
Society; discusses the various systems of writing found in Ancient 
Mexican Codices. 

The Question of the Celts. Science, Vol. xix, pages 194 and 
235> April, 1892. 

The " Hongote " Language. Science, Vol. xix, page 277, May, 

European Origin of the White Race. Science, Vol. xix, page 
360, June, 1892. 

The Department of Archaeology, pp.7. Circular of Information, 
No. 2, 1892, pages 377-383, Bureau of Education, Washington. 
Benjamin Franklin and the University of Pennsylvania. 

Describes the Museums of the University of Pennsylvania as they 
were in 1891. 

The Epilogues of Browning: Their Artistic Significance. Poet- 
lore, Vol. iv, pages 57-64, 1892. 

Browning on Unconventional Relations. Poet-lore, Vol. iv, 
pages 266-271. May, 1892. 

Primitive American Poetry. Poet-lore, Vol. iv, pages 329-331, 


^ The Nomenclature and Teaching of Anthropology, pp. 9. 
American Anthropologist, Vol. v, pages 263-271, July, 1892. 

Proposes a series of rules for an international nomenclature of the 
science of Antbropologj^, with examples. 

* Reminiscences of Pennsylvanian Folk-lore. pp. 9. Journal oj 
Afnerican Folk-lore, Vol. v, pages 17 7-1 85, July-September. 
Describes the folk-lore of a locality in southern Pennsylvania. 

Proposed Classification and International Nomenclature of the 
Anthropologic Sciences, pp. 2. Proceedings of the American 
Association for tJie Advanceme7it of Science, Vol. xli, 1892, pages 

Anvil-shaped Stones from Pennsylvania, pp. 2. Proceedings of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol. xli, 
pages 286-287, 1892. 

The Ancient Libyan Alphabet. Science, Vol. xx, page 105, 
August; page 192, September; page 290, November, 1892. 

Remarks on Certain Indian Skulls from Burial Mounds in Mis- 
souri, Illinois and Wisconsin, pp. 3. Transactions of the College of 
Physicia?is, PJiiladelpiiia, third series. Vol. xiv, pages 217-219, 
November, 1892. 

European Origin of the Aryans. Science, Vol. xx, page 165, 
September, 1892. 

The Etruscan Ritual Book. Science, Vol. xx, page 212, October, 

* Further Not-es on the Betoya Dialects of South America, pp. 
8. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxx, 
pages 271-278, October, 1892. 

From an unpublished ^IS. in the Lenox Library. 

Address Delivered on Columbus Day, October 21, 1892, at the 
Library and Museum Building of the University of Pennsylvania, 
pp. 8. Philadelphia, 1892. 

*The Etrusco-Libyan Elements in the Song of the Arvai 
Brethren, pp. 8. Proceedings of the American Piiilosophical So- 
ciety, Vol. xxx, pages 317-324, November, 1892. 


The Pursuit of Happiness, pp. 292. David McKay, Phila- 
delphia, 1893. 


The Boturini-Aubin-Goupil Collection of Mexicana. pp. 2. 
Science, Vol. xxi, pages 127-128, March, 1893. 

Remarks on the Mexican Calendar System. Proceedings of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol. xlii, 
page 312, 1893. 

Concludes that the calendar in its first form had no reference to the 
solar year and that its adaptation as a year-count came later. 

* The Native Calendar of Central America and Mexico : A Study 
in Linguistics and Symbolism, pp. 57, Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society, Vol. xxxi, pages 258-314, October, 1893. 

Describes the mathematical l)asis of the calendar, with a compara- 
tive analysis of the day and month names, with their symbolism. 

On an Inscribed Tablet from Long Island, pp. 3. The 
Archceologist, Waterloo, Ind., Vol. i, pages 201-203, November, 

Gives the criteria for determining the genuineness of such inscrip- 

* A Vocabulary of the Nanticoke Dialect, pp. 9. Proceedings 
of the American Philosophical Society, Vol, xxxi, pages 325-333, 
November, 1893. 

From an unpublished manuscript in the library of the American 
Philosophical Society, secured in 1792 by Mr. Thomas Jefferson. 

* On the Words '* Anahuac " and "Nahuatl." pp. 5. Ameri- 
can Antiquarian, Vol. xv, pages 377-382, November, 1893. 

The term "Anahuac'' has long been applied to the territory of 
Mexico. Dr. E. Seler, of Berlin, published an article asserting that 
this was an error, and devoid of native authority. It is here pointed 
out that he was wrong as early Nahuatl records use it in this sense. 

The Beginnings of Man and the Age of the Race. pp. 7. The 
Forimi, Vol. xvi, pages 452-458. December, 1893. 


*The "Nation" as an Element in Anthropology, pp.12. Memoirs 
of the International Congress of Anthropology, Chicago, 1894, pages 

Address as President of the Congress. 

* On Various Supposed Relations between the American and Asian 
Races, pp. 7. Memoirs of the International Congress of Anthro- 
pology, Chicago, 1894, pages 145-151- 

A refutation of the Asiatic theory of the origin of American culture. 


* The Present Status of American Linguistics, pp. 4. Memoirs 
of the International Congress of Anthropology, Chicago, 1894, pages 

A review of reeeut contributions. 
On the Relation of the Othomi and Tinne Languages. Compte- 
Rendu du Congres International des Americanistes, 1894. 

* Nagualism : A Study in Native American Folk-lore and 
History, pp. 63. Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, Vol. xxxiii, pages 11-73, January, 1894. 

Describes the secret cult which survives from heathen time among the 
natives of Mexico and Central America. 

* Characteristics of American Languages, pp. 5. American 
Antiquarian, Vol. xvi, pages 33-37, January, 1894. 

A reply to Mr. Hewitt. 

* The Origin of Sacred Numbers, pp. 5. American Anthropologist, 
Vol. vii, pages 168-173, April, 1894. 

The sacred numbers asserted to be preeminently 3 and 4, the first 
deriving its sacredness from abstract operations of the intelligence and 
the latter from concrete and material relations. 

* Obituary Notice of George de Benneville Keim. pp. 6. Pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosothical Society, Vol. xxxiii, pages 
187-192, May, 1894. 

An Obstetrical Conjuration, pp. 2. American Antiquarian, 
Vol. xvi, pages 166-167, Ma)^, 1894. 

A Nahuatl exorcism, with an explanation. 

* Variations of the Human Skeleton and their Causes, pp. 10. 
American Anthropologist^ Vol. vii, pages 377-386, October, 1894. 

An argument against skeletal variations being considered as rever- 

* On Certain Morphologic Traits in American Languages, pp. 5. 
American Antiquarian, Vol. xvi, pages 336-340, October, 1894. 

A discussion of incorporation and its effect on linguistic morphology. 
What the Maya Inscriptions Tell About, pp. 4. The ArchcBolo- 
^/i-/ (Waterloo, Ind.), Vol. ii, pages 325-328, November, 1894. 

* On the Physiological Correlation of Certain Linguistic Radi- 
cals, pp. 2. Proceedings of the American Oriefital Society, Vol. 
xvi, pages cxxxiii-cxxxiv, 1894. 

Intended to dissuade from use as signs of linguistic relation radicals 
between which and certain physiological processes correlations exist. 


* The Alphabets of the Berbers, pp. 8. Oriental Studies, 2.%t\zc- 
tion of the papers read before the Oriental Club of Philadelphia, 
pages 63-71. Boston, 1894. 

Suggests that one or more of the Berber alphabets may have been 
derived from Egypt. 

A Primer of Mayan Hieroglyphics, pp. 152. Publications of 
the University of Pennsylvania: Series in Philology, Literature 
and Archaeology, Vol. iii. No. 2. Ginn & Company, Boston. 

Intended as a summary of all that had been achieved up to the time 
of its publication. 


The Character and Aims of Scientific Investigation. Science, 
Vol. i, new series, page 3, January, 1895. 

Abstract of introductory address at Brooklyn meeting of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science, August, 1894. 

The Archaeology of Southern Florida. Science, Vol. i, new 
series, page 207, February, 1895. 

* The Proto-historic Chronology of Western Asia. pp. 31. 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxxiv, pages 
71-101, April, 1895. 

Walt Whitman and Science, pp. 12. The Conservator, Vol. vi, 
pages 20-31, April, 1895. 

* Obituary Notice of Dr. William Samuel Waithman Ruschen- 
berger. pp. 4. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 
Vol. xxxiv, pages 361-364, May, 1895. 

* Some Words from the Andagueda Dialect of the Choco Stock 
of South America, pp. 2. Proceedings of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society, Vol. xxxiv, pages 401-402, November, 1895. 

Contains a short vocabulary obtained from natives by ilr. Henry E. 

* On the Matagalpan Linguistic Stock of Central America, pp. 
13. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxxiv, 
pages 403-415, December, 1895. 

The Matagalpan family, first defined in The American Race, is more 
fully discuiised as they survive in San Salvador. 

* The Aims of Anthropology, pp. 17. Proceedings of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol. xliv, 
pages 1-17, 1895. 

Address as retiring President of the Association, 1895. 


* Report upon the Collections exhibited at the Columbian His- 
torical Exposition, pp. 73. Report of the United States Com- 
mission to the Columbian Historical Exposition at Madrid, 1892- 
93, pages 19-86. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1895. 

Descriptive report as United States Commissioner. 


* The Relations of Race and Culture to Degenerations of the 
Reproductive Organs and Functions in Women, pp. 2. Medical 
News, New York, January 18, 1896, pages 68-69. 

Summary of a paper read before the Anthropological Section of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, January 10, 1896. 

* On the Remains of Foreigners Discovered in Egypt by Mr. 
Flinders Petrie, 1895. pp. 2. Proceedings of the Americaii Philo- 
sophical Society, Vol. XXXV, pages 63-64, January, 1896. 

An Ethnologist's View of History, pp. 24. Philadelphia, 1896. 
An address before the annual meeting of the New Jersey Historical 
Society, at Trenton, January 28, 1896. 

Scientific Materialism. Science, Vol. iii, new series, page 324, 
February, 1896. 

* Obituary Notice of Henry Haz.lehurst, Esq. pp. 8. American 
Philosophical Society Memorial Volume, pages iS-25, April, 1896. 

*Left-handedness in North American Aboriginal Art. pp. 7. 
American Anthropologist, Vol. ix, pages 175-181, May, 1896. 

An attempt to prove, from an examination of their stone implements, 
that the aboriginal race of North America was either left-handed or 
ambidextrous to a greater degree than the peoples of modern Europe. 

Whitman's Sexual Imagery. The Conservator, Vol. vii, pages 
57-60, June, 1896. 

The Myths of the New World. A Treatise on the Symbolism 
and Mythology of the Red Race of America, Third edition, re- 
vised, pp. 360. Philadelphia, David McKay, 1896. 

* "SpelHng Reform," a Dream and a Folly, pp.4- Journal of 
Communication, July, 1896. 

A protest against phonetic spelling. 
On the Oldest Stone Implements in the Eastern United States, 
pp. 6. Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain 
and Ireland, Vol. xxvi, pages 59-64, August, 1896. 

Argues that there is nothing to warrant the attribution of these re- 


mains to a culture earlier than that of the Indian as found Ijy the 
earliest European voyagers. 
*The Battle and Ruins of Cintla. pp. lo. American Antiquarian, 
Vol. xvii, pages 259-268, September, 1896. 

An examination of the historical narrative, name, tribe, place and 
existing ruins, with an account of the latter from unpublished notes by 
Dr. Berendt. 

* Vocabulary of the Noanama Dialect of the Choco Stock. 
pp. 3. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol, 
XXXV, pages 202-204, November, 1896. 

Contains vocabulary procured from natives by Mr. Henry G. Granger. 


* Native American Stringed Instruments. p. i. American 
Antiquarian, Vol. xix, pages 19-20, January, 1897. 

Descriptive account. 

* Horatio Hale. pp. 3. American Anthropologist, Vol. x, pages 
25-27. January, 1897. 

Obituary notice. 
Horatio Hale. Science, Vol. v, new series, page 216. Febru- 
ary, 1897. 

Obituary notice. 
*Tiie Pillars of Ben. pp. 8. Bulletin of the Free Museum of 
Science and Art, University of Pennsylvania, Vol. i, pages 3-10, 
May, 1897. 

Explanation of the name of these monolithic monuments of the State 
of Chiapas, Mexico, as one of the Tzental day names, and the pillars 
explained as erected to Ben as one of the " year-bearers'' identified with 
the Bacabs. 

* The So-called Bow-puller Identified as the Greek Murmex. 
pp. 5. Bulletin of the Free Museum of Science and Art, University 
of Pennsylvania, Vol. i, pages 10-15, May, 1897. 

* The Missing Authorities on Mayan Antiquities. pp. 9. 
American Anthropologist, Vol. x, pages 183-191, June, 1897. 

Gives a list of the most important missing historical and linguistic 
The Potter's Wheel in America. Science, Vol. v, new series, 
page 958, June, 1897. 

Reply to Mr. H. C. Mercer. 
The Measurement of Thought as Function, pp. 3. Proceedings 


of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxxvi, pages 438-440, 
December, 1897. 

* Note on the Classical Murmex. pp. 2. Bulletin of the Free 
Museum of Science and Art, Philadelphia, Vol. i, pages 70-71. 
December, 1897. 

* Dr. Allen's Contributions to Anthropologj'. pp. 8. Proceedings 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1897, pages 
522-529, December. 

Memorial address on Dr. Harrison Allen. 

Religions of Primitive People, pp. 264. New York, G. P. 
Putnam's Sons, 1897. 

Lectures delivered in the course of American Lectures on the History 
of Keligions, second series, 1896-1897, treating of the origin and con- 
tents of primitive religions, primitive religious expression and the lines 
of development, with an introduction defining the methods of study. 

* Maria Candelaria : An Historic Drama from American Abo- 
riginal Life. pp. 91. Philadelphia. 

Based upon an episode of the rising of the Tzentals iu 1712. 


The Culture Status of the American Indian at the Period of his 
Discovery, pp. 3. American Archceologist, Vol. ii, pages 29-31, 
February, 1898. 

* Note on the Criteria of Wampum, pp. 2. Bulletin of the Free 
Museum of Science and Art, University of Pennsylvania, Vol. i, 
pages 177-178, June, 1898. 

* The Factors of Heredity and Environment in Man, pp. 7, 
American Anthropologist, Vol. xi, pages 271-277, September, 1898. 

* The Dwarf Tribe of the Upper Amazon, pp. 7. American 
Anthropologist, Vol xi, pages 277-279, September, 1898. 

A review of the evidence in reference to dwarf tribes in South 
Popular Superstitions of Europe, pp. 13. The Century Maga- 
zine, Vol. Ivi, pages 643-655, September, 1898. 

A popular article, with pictures by Andre Castaigne. 

* The Archaeology of Cuba. pp. 4. American Archceologist 
(Columbus, Ohio), Vol. ii, pages 253-256, October, 1898. 

A resum^ of the literature. 

* The Linguistic Carlography of the Chaco Region, pp. 28. 


Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. xxxvii, 

pages 178-205, October, 1898. 

Few linguistic areas on the continent have been more obscure than 
that called "El Gran Chaco,'' in northern Argentina and southern 
Bolivia. In the above is mapped the area from 20° to 3(J° south lati- 
tude and 56° to 66° west longitude, defining the boundaries of each of 
the seven linguistic stocks which occupied it. 

* On Two Unclassified Recent Vocabularies from South America, 
pp. 3. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 
xxxvii, pages 321-323, October, 1898. 

Recent vocabularies of the Andoa and Cataquina tongues are examined 
and their linguistic relations discussed. 

* The Peoples of the Philippines, pp. 12. American Anthropolo- 
gist, Vol. xi, pages 293-307, October, 1898. 

An account of the different native stocks and tribes. 

A Record of Study in American Aboriginal Languages. Printed 
for Private Distribution: Media, Pa., 1898, p. 24. 

A descriptive analysis of the author's published work on American 
languages, with index. 


* The Calchaqui : An Archaeological Problem, pp. 4. American 
Anthropologist, (new series), Vol. i, pages 41-44, January, 1899. 

The question stated to remain open. 

* Professor Blumentrill's Studies of the Philippines, pp. 4. 
American Anthropologist (new series), Vol. i, pages 122-125, 
January, 1899. 

A general review and bibliography. 
The Origin of the Sacred Name Jahva. pp. 8. Archiv fiir 
Religions Wissenschaft, Vol. ii, pages 226-236, 1899. 

The sacred name Jah concluded to be originally an exclamation or 
cry used in the worship of divinities, and the wide distribution of this 
exclamation with identical or analogous associations regarded as an 
example of physiological combination of certain sounds to certain emo- 
tions and conceptions.